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World Climate Report

» A Classic Tale of Global Warming Alarmism

» More Evidence Against a Methane Time Bomb

» Agriculture: Tropical Cyclones are Welcome Visitors

» Sea Level Acceleration: Not so Fast

» Hansen Is Wrong

» Earth’s Carbon Sink Still Strong and Growing

» Wild Speculation on Climate and Polar Bears

» Illiteracy at NASA

» The Heat Was On—Before Urbanization and Greenhouse Gases

» What’s to Blame for the Rains on the Plains?

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NewsBusters - Global Warming

» CNN's Blitzer: 'I Don't Remember' Biden's Law School Plagiarism

» CNN's Chetry: 'Please Tell Me It's Not Lipstick Again'

» MRC Report Asks: Why No Fairness Doctrine for PBS?

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Science and Public Policy Institute

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Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Research Group

» Roger Pielke Sr. is now on Twitter!

» 2012 Climate Science Weblog in Review by Dallas Jean Staley – A Guest Post

» The Weblog Is Retiring

» Publication Of “Reply to “Comment On ‘Ocean Heat Content And Earth’s Radiation Imbalance. II. Relation To Climate Shifts’ ” by Nuccitelli Et Al. By Douglass and Knox 2012

» Q&A From A Group Of Retired NASA Personnel And Associates

» The Importance of Land Use/Land Practices On Climate – A Perspective From Jon Foley

» Interview With James Wynn In The English Department At Carnegie Mellon University

» University Of Alabama At Huntsville October 2012 Lower Tropospheric Temperature Analysis

» USA Election Day 2012

» New Paper “Climatic Variability Over Time Scales Spanning Nine Orders of Magnitude: Connecting Milankovitch Cycles With Hurst–Kolmogorov Dynamics” By Markonis And Koutsoyiannis

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» Ruling out high deflation scenarios

» Exponent’s Transients: Bodge or Botch?

» NFL Officials Over-Inflated Patriot Balls

» More on Deflategate

» Deflategate and Errors in the Wells Report

» Implications of recent multimodel attribution studies for climate sensitivity

» Scientific American article: “How to Misinterpret Climate Change Research”

» Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 3

» Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 2

» Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 1

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Watts Up With That?

» 2°C or not 2°C–that is the question

» An Ecologist’s Perspective on Pope Francis’s Encyclical Letter

» Oddly, ‘Nobel prize winner’ Michael Mann was not invited to sign The Mainau Declaration for climate protection

» A sad commentary on global warming alarmism: Science says one thing, scientists another

» That Didn’t Take Long: North & South Carolina Shark Attacks Blamed on Global Warming

» New Pew Center study finds global warming to be a mostly political issue

» El Niño begins to curtail the Pause

» When EPA worries about regulating puddles, it has gone too far

» One-sided science ignores the fact that ‘Sea ice is not a stable habitat for polar bears’

» About the Fourth of July and ISIS – from a friend who is a police officer, and a ‘spook’

» A Physician’s Perspective on the EPA’s “Data Derangement Syndrome”

» Claim: Universe to end with a ‘big rip’ where ‘atoms are ripped apart’

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Global Warming News

» IER Study: Existing Coal Much Less Costly than New Gas, Wind

» EPA’s Climate Action Flim-Flam Report

» Why the Ratepayer Protection Act Is Worthy

» Computer-Aided Sophistry: My Power Point on the Social Cost of Carbon

» Sowing Local Opposition to COP-21 in Paris

» Pope Francis’s Climate Encyclical: Help Poor People by Dismantling Industrial Civilization

» How to Rebut the Coming Wave of Tasteless Green TV Ads Defending Congress’s Bipartisan Effort to Check EPA (BONUS BLOGS: “Niskanen Center’s Unreasonable Case for Carbon Tax” & “Progressives’ Insincere Response to Pope”)

» Does EPA’s Clean Power Plan Endanger Manatees?

» Renewable Fuel Standard: Can EPA Regulate America Beyond the ‘Blend Wall’?

» Cooler Heads Digest 12 June 2015

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Fox News - Climate Change Stories

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Michelle Malkin - Enviro-Nitwits

» Going green: Obama and Bill Nye’s Earth Day fuel-fry cost taxpayers a cool million

» Holy hypocrisy and hot air

» EPA chief wants to help ‘climate deniers’ be ‘normal’

» Friday lunacy dump: Obama admin says EPA’s new truck emission regs will make shipping costs go down

» G7 agrees to control earth’s temperature but remains split on if Superman could beat up Batman

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DailyTech Michael Asher`s blog

» Will the Real Antarctica Please Stand Up?

» Global Warming May Decrease Hurricanes, Research Suggests

» Japanese Report Disputes Human Cause for Global Warming

» Sea Ice Ends Year at Same Level as 1979

» A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the (Climate) Forum

» Climate Report Downgrades Ice Loss; Media Reports Opposite

» Princeton Physicist Calls Global Warming Science "Mistaken"

» Defying Predictions, Sea Level Rise Begins to Slow

» Electric Car Sales in Freefall; Industry Risks Collapse

» Glaciers in Norway Growing Again

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C3 - Climate Cycles Change

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CATO - Global Warming

» Will the Supreme Court Save America from the 'Greek Disease?'

» Washington's Role in Puerto Rico's Mess

» The Other Danger of a 'Grexit'

» Republicans Amid Changing Opinions on Social Issues

» It's Time for the Blaine Amendment to Go

» Toss South Korea off America's Defense Dole: Presidents Obama and Park Should End Military Welfare

» Government Debt: Jefferson and Gallatin Were Right

» Uber Execs Arrested in France after Luddite Protests

» Export-Import Bank Closes: Kill Subsidies to Cut Federal Liabilities, Promote Economic Fairness

» Why US Allies Are Happy to Join China's AIIB

» Generous with Someone Else's Money

» Greece, Euro Stagger toward the Brink: How Will It all End?

» How Many More Greek Tragedies?

» The New Front in the Global War on Drugs

» Six Humpty Dumptys Playing Calvinball

» Scalia's Obamacare Argument Is Stronger than Roberts'

» Top Dozen Villains in Greek Soap Opera: Who Is to Blame as Greece and Euro Stagger toward the Brink?

» Justice John Roberts's Obamacare Decision Is an Orwellian Mess

» Taper Talk, and the $10 Bill

» Libertarians Have Long Led the Way on Marriage

» Shortcomings Undercut Message of Encyclical

» Disclosure Rules Are the Wrong Way to Push Social Change

» How China and the United States Can Learn to Get Along

» Washington Confronts Russia over Ukraine: Yet Europeans Won't Protect Themselves from Vladimir Putin

» The New Saudi-Russian Axis: Should America Worry?

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CanadaFreePress - Global Warming

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'When Americans fire up their grills on Independence Day, they'll dump up to 882 million pounds of c ...
»Watch: Gov. Chris Christie: ‘I am not a scientist. But I do know that climate change is happening’
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»New paper shows N. Greenland was warmer during the early 20th century (1920-1940) & during Medieval Warm Period
»‘Pope’s encyclical on climate change ignores how markets & technology have lifted hundreds of millions out of poverty’
»‘Weather related deaths had fallen 98% due to the protection of fossil fuels’
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»Sci Am: None of Pacific atolls are threatened with extinction in near future from flooding. Some even growing larger
»Study finds climate skepticism even higher in New Zealand, Australia, and Norway than in the US
»St Louis: Pres. of pest control biz suggests AGW has created a much bigger need to pay him for pest control


Date published: Sun, 05 Jul 2015 13:33:57 +0000
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»The Greek Tragedy: Will We Heed the Warning?
Caution: For those who think I should stick to science, turn your eyes away now. When my daughter st ...
»UAH V6.0 Global Temperature Update for June, 2015: +0.31 deg. C
NOTE: This is the third monthly update with our new Version 6.0 dataset. Differences versus the old ...
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(This is a follow-up to my post from a little over a year ago, but with some exprimental results). I ...
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Portions of up to ten plains states are covered by smoke this morning from hundreds of wildfires now ...
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An unusually warm and dry spring has led to widespread wildfire activity in Alaska, with over 260 wi ...
»Auroras Seen as Far South as Georgia and Arkansas
The severe geomagnetic storm late yesterday produced rare auroras seen as far south as Georgia and A ...
»2015 Will Be Record Warm in Surface Temperatures…But Still Below Model Forecasts
With 5/12 (41.7%) of the votes counted, John Christy and I are now prepared to call 2015 as the winn ...
»Stossel’s “Science Wars”, Tomorrow 8 p.m. EDT on Fox Business
I’ll be on tommorow’s Stossel Show (Fox Business Channel, 8 p.m. EDT Friday), where John ...
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Anyone who has traveled on airplanes a lot has probably seen the glory (or halo) phenomenon when loo ...
»TRMM Satellite Reentering the Atmosphere Tonight
NASA’s very successful Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite will mostly burn up up ...


Date published: Fri, 03 Jul 2015 16:22:42 +0000
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»Manual Adjustments in the Temperature Record
I have been getting inquiries from folks asking me what I think about stories like this one, where P ...
»Mistaking Cyclical Variations for the Trend
I titled my very first climate video “What is Normal,” alluding to the fact that climate ...
»Typhoons and Hurricanes
(Cross-posted from Coyoteblog) The science that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and causes some warming is h ...
»Those Who Follow Climate Will Definitely Recognize This
This issue will be familiar to anyone who has spent time with temperature graphs.  We can ask oursel ...
»Layman’s Primer on the Climate Skeptic Position
I am a “lukewarmer”, which means a skeptic that agrees that man-made CO2 is incrementall ...
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One of my favorite sayings is that “years from now, environmentalists will look back on the cu ...
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I have written in article at Forbes.com called Summer of the Shark, Global Warming Edition.  It desc ...
»HydroInfra: Scam! Investment Honeypot for Climate Alarmists
Cross-posted from Coyoteblog. I got an email today from some random Gmail account asking me to write ...
»Presentation: The Science of the Skeptic Position
Here is the most recent version of my presentation “Don’t Panic: The Science of the Clim ...
»Switching Back to Disqus
For a variety of reasons, I had to turn off Disqus a while back.  We are going back to it for commen ...


Date published: Mon, 09 Feb 2015 17:37:18 +0000
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»China cracks down on environmental protection, arrests thousands suspected of environmental crimes
By Becca Stanek China is getting serious about protecting the environment and expects its citizens t ...
»IPCC Ignores its Own Findings on Stratospheric Cooling
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»EPA Biofuel Policy In Shambles, So It Mandates More Ethanol
Despite complaints from the oil industry, livestock producers, environmental groups and a whole host ...


Date published: Mon, 29 Jun 2015 22:11:06 +0000
Details

»Ruling out high deflation scenarios
Further to my series of posts on Deflategate, reader chrimony observed that my statistical analysis ...
»Exponent’s Transients: Bodge or Botch?
In my first writeup, I observed that Exponent’s Logo transients appeared to be bodged too high ...
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»Implications of recent multimodel attribution studies for climate sensitivity
Last year, a paper of mine (Lewis 2014) showing that the approach used in Frame et al (2005), which ...
»Scientific American article: “How to Misinterpret Climate Change Research”
A Scientific American article concerning Bjorn Stevens’ recent paper “Rethinking the low ...
»Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 3
A guest post by Nicholas Lewis In Part 1 I introduced the talk I gave at Ringberg 2015, explained wh ...
»Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 2
A guest post by Nicholas Lewis In Part 1 I introduced the talk I gave at Ringberg 2015, explained wh ...
»Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 1
A guest post by Nicholas Lewis As many readers will be aware, I attended the WCRP Grand Challenge Wo ...


Date published: Sun, 05 Jul 2015 13:43:00 +0000
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Date published: not known
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There has been a poll in Canberra to test public opinion for a GreenLabor Govt proposed light rail o ...
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Date published: Sun, 05 Jul 2015 01:37:36 +0000
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Ocean Sediment, It's A Gas by Dr. Doug L. Hoffman

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Author Post
Denny
Wed May 11 2011, 08:56AMQuote
Registered Member #140
Joined: Sun May 11 2008, 12:38PM
Posts: 2178




Methane is an important greenhouse gas, 30 times more potent than CO2, but our knowledge of the methane cycle is woefully inadequate. Sediments on the ocean's floor contain immense quantities of methane and there are enormous fluxes of methane into and out of these sediments. Trapped frozen in ice, there are some 10,000 gigatons of carbon stored under the sea—twice as much carbon as contained in conventional fossil fuel reserves. Some scientists consider the release of this methane the single worst environmental danger we face as a species. A massive release of ocean floor methane could cause real runaway global warming that would have dramatic impact on life. But methane continually leaks from seabeds around the world, contributing to the total amount of carbon injected into the ecosystem. A new report finds that ocean methane concentrations have been underestimated by a factor of 10 to 20 fold.

Estimates of sedimentary methane production vary between 85 and 300 Tg per year, but analytical difficulties have made previous measurements too imprecise to tell what the true amount is. Most previous estimates were calculated from ship board readings, not measurements taken at depth. According to a report in Geophysical Research Letters, Zhang et al., in order to avoid the sampling issues that have plagued other methods, employed an in situ technique to measure methane concentrations in sediments. Motivation for the research and general results are listed in the abstract:


Ocean sediment dissolved CH4 concentrations are of interest for possible climate-driven venting from sea floor hydrate decomposition, for supporting the large-scale microbial anaerobic oxidation of CH4 that holds the oceanic CH4 budget in balance, and for environmental issues of the oil and gas industry. Analyses of CH4 from recovered cores near vent locations typically show a maximum of ∼1 mM, close to the 1 atmosphere equilibrium value. We show from novel in situ measurement with a Raman-based probe that geochemically coherent profiles of dissolved CH4 occur rising to 30 mM (pCH4 = 3 MPa) or an excess pressure ∼3× greater than CO2 in a bottle of champagne. Normalization of the CH4 Raman ν1 peak to the ubiquitous water ν2 bending peak provides a fundamental internal calibration. Very large losses of CH4 and fractions of other gases (CO2, H2S) must typically occur from recovered cores at gas rich sites. The new data are consistent with observations of microbial biomass and observed CH4 oxidation rates at hydrate rich sites and support estimates of a greatly expanded near surface oceanic pore water CH4 reservoir.


In short, they found concentrations as much as 10 to 20 times higher than those determined by shipboard measurements and conclude that production rates are near the high end of past estimates. Researchers have known since the 1960s that there are large natural deposits of frozen ice containing methane lying on the ocean floor, where the high pressure and cold temperature keep them from melting. Oceanographers have pulled up frozen chunks of this material, called methane clathrate or hydrate, from more than 90 locations around the world.



Methane clathrate deep ocean deposit.

Clathrate hydrates are cage-like minerals in which water forms an ice-like cage structure in which gas molecules, such as methane, reside. Huge amounts of methane clathrate exist under the high pressures and cold temperatures of the seafloor, forming a major reservoir of greenhouse gas. Unsurprisingly, some energy companies are investigating ways to tap into this huge reservoir of trapped natural gas.

Other key findings include measurements giving a 30× increase in methane concentration and the conclusion that pore water methane is a massively underestimated carbon reservoir. Note that, when sediment particles get deposited on the seafloor they carry some ocean water with them. Water trapped in this way, scientists call “pore water” because it fills the pores between the sediment grains. Because this water is in contact with methane bearing clathrate ice, it also contains elevated levels of CH4.

In fact, there must be high levels of gas in the water saturating the mud that methane ice is buried in. Otherwise, according to Peter Brewer, ocean chemist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, the hydrate will not be stable. “If you just put a block of methane hydrate on the sea floor it will dissolve really fast,” says Brewer. “The hydrates in sediments have to be in equilibrium with the water around them, which must contain huge amounts of methane. One would guess it is about the same as the amount in the clathrate itself.”

This is why Brewer and his PhD student Xin Zhang, the papers lead author, equipped a remotely piloted submersible with a Raman-based probe to measure methane in place. Raman spectroscopy is well suited to chemical analysis on the ocean floor. The robotic sub can stick its metal probe into the mud next to a hydrate deposit and suck up water, and then a laser beam reveals the amount of methane and other substances in that water. Bottom line: there's a lot more methane down there than is apparent from cores brought to the surface.



A Raman spectroscopy laser on the sea floor.

So are the merchants of doom correct? Could a seafloor eruption of methane cause another episode of rapid warming like that of the PETM or even the more prolonged warming of the recently discovered Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum.? Brewer thinks that a mass releases of sea-floor methane is unlikely to cause a blip in today's climate. More likely would be for any released gas to get digested by bacteria or dissolved into sea water, instead of released to the atmosphere. “It's not a scare story,” says Brewer, in an article on Nature.com.

Other than having oceanographers all atwitter, what do these new findings mean? It means that we have discovered science has a long way to go before it can claim to truly understand the carbon cycle. Particularly the sort of mid term sequestration of carbon represented by methane clathrates, falling as it does between the short term cycle of vegetation growth and decomposition, and the long term cycle of geological sequestration. There is more carbon being cycled through Earth's environment than science knows about—10, 20, even 30 times more than previous estimates in this case. It comes from sources undetected and is consumed by processes unknown. But there is a larger lesson here.

What is important about the work done by Zhang et al. is that they devised better instruments and then actually went out and measured the gas they were studying. In other words they did real science—they didn't just muck about with computer models, or even haul samples back to the lab for measurement. They gathered data about methane ice from where it occurs: on the bottom of the ocean. Real experiment, real observations, real science. If only the twits making doomsday predictions based on their software playthings had as much scientific integrity. But then the whole global warming crisis would fizz away, like a clathrate hauled from its ocean larder.

Be safe, enjoy the interglacial and stay skeptical.


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