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World Climate Report

» A Classic Tale of Global Warming Alarmism

» More Evidence Against a Methane Time Bomb

» Agriculture: Tropical Cyclones are Welcome Visitors

» Sea Level Acceleration: Not so Fast

» Hansen Is Wrong

» Earth’s Carbon Sink Still Strong and Growing

» Wild Speculation on Climate and Polar Bears

» Illiteracy at NASA

» The Heat Was On—Before Urbanization and Greenhouse Gases

» What’s to Blame for the Rains on the Plains?

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NewsBusters - Global Warming

» CNN's Blitzer: 'I Don't Remember' Biden's Law School Plagiarism

» CNN's Chetry: 'Please Tell Me It's Not Lipstick Again'

» MRC Report Asks: Why No Fairness Doctrine for PBS?

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Science and Public Policy Institute

» Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bivalves

» Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bacteria

» Observed Climate Change and the Negligible Global Effect of Greenhouse-gas Emission Limits in the State of Utah

» Experimental Artifacts of Free-Air-C02-Enrichment (FACE) Studies

» The Extinction Risk for Stationary Plants

» Benefits of Atmospheric C02 Enrichment on Strawberries

» Forest Growth Responses to Increasing Temperatures

» Stop Climate Fear Mongering

» Was 2014 the Warmest Year on Record? No, It Wasn't...

» Problems with Model Predictions of Species Extinctions

» The Influence of C02 on Plant Antioxidants

» Health Effects of Hot vs. Cold Temperatures in Asia

» Coral Reef Responses to Temperature and Stress: Thermal Adaptation

» Forest Growth Response to C02

» Onward Marches the Great Pause

» Response of Various Marine Animals to Ocean Acidification and Warming

» FACE Experiments and Grassland Species

» Effects of Ocean Acidification on Fish

» Response of Fish to Ocean Warming

» Additional Grounds for Rejecting Biofuels

» The Global Medieval Warm Period

» Growth Rates of Old Versus Young Forest Trees

» Water Use Efficiency of Agricultural Species

» Tropical Trees

» Global Temperatures and Biospheric Productivity

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Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Research Group

» Roger Pielke Sr. is now on Twitter!

» 2012 Climate Science Weblog in Review by Dallas Jean Staley – A Guest Post

» The Weblog Is Retiring

» Publication Of “Reply to “Comment On ‘Ocean Heat Content And Earth’s Radiation Imbalance. II. Relation To Climate Shifts’ ” by Nuccitelli Et Al. By Douglass and Knox 2012

» Q&A From A Group Of Retired NASA Personnel And Associates

» The Importance of Land Use/Land Practices On Climate – A Perspective From Jon Foley

» Interview With James Wynn In The English Department At Carnegie Mellon University

» University Of Alabama At Huntsville October 2012 Lower Tropospheric Temperature Analysis

» USA Election Day 2012

» New Paper “Climatic Variability Over Time Scales Spanning Nine Orders of Magnitude: Connecting Milankovitch Cycles With Hurst–Kolmogorov Dynamics” By Markonis And Koutsoyiannis

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Climate Audit

» Jones and Dixon Refute Conspiracy Theorist Lewandowsky

» Reductio ad mannium

» How Weaver Ignored Corcoran’s Segue

» The implications for climate sensitivity of Bjorn Stevens’ new aerosol forcing paper

» Weaver: “I do not lobby for more climate funding”

» Another Upside-Down PAGES2K Non-Corrigendum

» Weaver’s Next Generation Climate Model: Breaking News!!

» Weaver Suggests Buddy Review for Mann et al 2005

» Brandon’s ebook on the Hockey Stick

» Josh: Andrew, Put on your big boy pants

***
Watts Up With That?

» Earth Hour – Celebrate the Warmth

» The Desert Finder

» Study: Climate change does not cause extreme winters

» Outrageous: NOAA demands $262,000 fee for looking at their ‘public’ data

» Finally: peer reviewed pushback against the Lewandowsky, Oberauer, and Gignac paper

» Climate skeptic scientists push back against ‘witch hunt’

» Laughable AGU Claim: 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami ‘spurred global warming’

» Climate FAIL: Gallup poll shows global warming concerns dead last

» National Association of Scholars says ‘The fossil fuel divestment movement, is an exercise in futility.’

» Richard Tol’s Excellent Summary of the Flaws in Cook et al. (2013) – The Infamous 97% Consensus Paper

» Amazing study of the IPCC and media concludes: “…reception and coverage in the media has varied widely.”

» NASA refutes Mann and Rahmstorf – Finds Atlantic ‘Conveyor Belt’ Not Slowing

***
Global Warming News

» Free Market Groups Take Aim at Obama Guidance on NEPA Review of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

» Respectfully Rebutting Professor Revesz on EPA’s Clean Power Plan

» EPA’s Clean Power Plan: Whitman Goes Orwell on McConnell

» Sen. Cruz and Rep. Bridenstine Introduce American Energy Renaissance Act

» AP Analysis: Obama Administration Sets Record for Flouting Freedom of Information Act

» Introducing VICE News to 2012 Debate Obama (the one who ran to the right of Romney on AGW/energy)

» Root Cause of Ethanol ‘Blend Wall’? Consumers Don’t Like Rip Offs

» CEI Files Suit over EPA’s Glacial “Richard Windsor” Production

» Pound for Pound, the Worst EPA Regulation During the Obama Administration Is…

» The Possible Mootness of Mitch McConnell’s Missive to States Regarding Non-Compliance with the Clean Power Plan

***
Fox News - Climate Change Stories

***
Michelle Malkin - Enviro-Nitwits

» Heir apparent to Al Gore proves he’s totally up to the challenge

» Maybe the EPA will fulfill FOIA requests after they’re done trying to regulate your grill emissions

» Guess what might be to blame for the rise of ISIS

» Starbucks working diligently to protect the planet from threat posed by whipped cream

» Great Lakes’ failure to cooperate with Al Gore’s doomsday alarmism a sure sign of climate change, says Bill Nye

***
DailyTech Michael Asher`s blog

» Will the Real Antarctica Please Stand Up?

» Global Warming May Decrease Hurricanes, Research Suggests

» Japanese Report Disputes Human Cause for Global Warming

» Sea Ice Ends Year at Same Level as 1979

» A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the (Climate) Forum

» Climate Report Downgrades Ice Loss; Media Reports Opposite

» Princeton Physicist Calls Global Warming Science "Mistaken"

» Defying Predictions, Sea Level Rise Begins to Slow

» Electric Car Sales in Freefall; Industry Risks Collapse

» Glaciers in Norway Growing Again

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C3 - Climate Cycles Change

***
CATO - Global Warming

» Politico Presents …. Washington Lobbyists!

» How about Spending Cuts Instead of Sanders's War Tax?

» FEMA Tells Oklahoma to Do the Impossible ... Or Else

» The SGR Fix Will Bust the Budget

» The Monetary Approach Reigns Supreme

» China Needs More Market -- and Individualism -- and Less State

» Ex-Im Bank Taxes Mississippi’s Manufacturers

» Export-Import Bank Costly to Pennsylvania Businesses

» Hold Politicians Accountable for Libya Debacle

» Obamacare: Not as Bad as It Could Have Been, But Still Awful

» Game on: How to Devise International Investment Law

» This Phone Hacking Device Is out of Control

» Legislators Move against Mass Surveillance

» FEMA Asks Louisiana to Do the Impossible -- Or Else

» FEMA Is Asking Mississippi to Do the Impossible ... Or Lose Disaster Aid

» The Truth about Infrastructure

» Whitehouse Threatens Scientific Freedom

» Supreme Court Must Reconsider UT's Admissions Policy

» Russia and North Korea Play Nice: Vladimir Putin's Ukrainian Dance with Kim Jong-un

» Tehran, though an Ugly Regime, Does Not Threaten America.

» Why Offensive Speech Is Valuable

» Libertarians and the Struggle for Women's Rights

» Our Unrealistic Foreign Policy

» Surprising Peru

» Mandatory Voting Guarantees Ignorant Votes

***
CanadaFreePress - Global Warming

» Obama’s FEMA Dir. Sounds Like GOP ‘Denier’!?

» Population Control in the Name of Sustainable Development

» WH Rally v. Arctic Drilling: Global Warming Is ‘Absolutely’ ‘Settled Science’ Despite Ch

***
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Headlines

»BBC Presenter: New Climate Doc Unbiased Because it Doesn’t Feature Sceptics
»Pointman: Warmists have ‘lost it. Going forward, you might as well be warned, it’s going to get a lot uglier as they go down’
»Major publisher retracts 43 scientific papers amid wider fake peer-review scandal
»New AP Stylebook Entry on ‘Global Warming’, ‘Climate Change’ Doesn’t Go Over Well With Many: ‘So Full of Bull’
AP claims '90 percent of the peer-reviewed scientific literature' supports global warming.
»Review ‘Merchant’s of Doubt': Film ‘engages in the very character assassination techniques that they show are favored by the other side’
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Speaking to students at the University at Albany, Bill Nye the Science Guy said that a carbon tax wa ...
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'Will be the largest solar farm in New Jersey'
»In 1974, Paul Ehrlich told the U.S. Senate he wouldn’t bet a nickel U.S. still around in 1994
Ehrlich to U.S. Senate 1974: 'If we have 20 years -- which I wouldn't put a nickel on -- but if we h ...
»Study in Journal Climate: Climate change does not cause extreme winters
Cold snaps like the ones that hit the eastern United States in the past winters are not a consequenc ...


Date published: Sat, 28 Mar 2015 16:17:17 +0000
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»This is Your President’s Science Advisor
A President’s political appointees are chosen because their views support the President ...
»Color Satellite View of Solar Eclipse
Here’s a NASA MODIS view of this morning’s solar eclipse from the Terra polar-orbiting s ...
»Bring Back Our Tornadoes!
One of the many tragic consequences of human-caused climate change is the nearly unprecedented lack ...
»Atlas Shrugged, Net Neutrality, and Government Controlled Science
There’s an amazing article by Robert Tracinski at TheFederalist.com which draws powerful paral ...
»Most Spectacular Auroras of this Solar Cycle Last Night
Last night’s aurora event is being described by many as the most spectacular of this solar cyc ...
»St. Pat’s Day Greeted with Green Aurora, Severe Geomagnetic Storm
A coronal mass ejection (CME) from the sun just arrived at Earth this morning, producing aurora and ...
»What if Boston Had Record Low Snowfall?
By yesterday evening, Boston officially received its greatest seasonal snowfall on record, 108.6 inc ...
»Even Though Warming Has Stopped, it Keeps Getting Worse?
I was updating a U.S. Corn Belt summer temperature and precipitation dataset from the NCDC website, ...
»Worst Dust Storm in 12 Years Hits Oman
A spectacular satellite view of the dust storm that hit portions of Oman yesterday. High winds comin ...
»Extraordinary Color View of Eastern U.S. Snow Cover
Much of the Eastern U.S. finally had a clear day yesterday (March 6, 2015) , allowing the NASA MODIS ...


Date published: Sat, 21 Mar 2015 12:30:50 +0000
Details

»Manual Adjustments in the Temperature Record
I have been getting inquiries from folks asking me what I think about stories like this one, where P ...
»Mistaking Cyclical Variations for the Trend
I titled my very first climate video “What is Normal,” alluding to the fact that climate ...
»Typhoons and Hurricanes
(Cross-posted from Coyoteblog) The science that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and causes some warming is h ...
»Those Who Follow Climate Will Definitely Recognize This
This issue will be familiar to anyone who has spent time with temperature graphs.  We can ask oursel ...
»Layman’s Primer on the Climate Skeptic Position
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»When Climate Alarmism Limits Environmental Progress
One of my favorite sayings is that “years from now, environmentalists will look back on the cu ...
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I have written in article at Forbes.com called Summer of the Shark, Global Warming Edition.  It desc ...
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»Switching Back to Disqus
For a variety of reasons, I had to turn off Disqus a while back.  We are going back to it for commen ...


Date published: Mon, 09 Feb 2015 17:37:18 +0000
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Date published: not known
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»Jones and Dixon Refute Conspiracy Theorist Lewandowsky
Jonathan Jones and Ruth Dixon have published (see Ruth’s blog here) a comment  in Psychologica ...
»Reductio ad mannium
The new article by Rahmstorf and Mann (see RC here) has been criticized at WUWT (here here) for maki ...
»How Weaver Ignored Corcoran’s Segue
Four of the incidents in J Burke’s background chronology in Weaver v National Post (the Januar ...
»The implications for climate sensitivity of Bjorn Stevens’ new aerosol forcing paper
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»Weaver’s Next Generation Climate Model: Breaking News!!
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Date published: Sat, 28 Mar 2015 14:23:26 +0000
Details

»Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bivalves
As the air's CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as mo ...
»Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bacteria
Cyanobacteria-also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta (the smallest of whi ...
»Observed Climate Change and the Negligible Global Effect of Greenhouse-gas Emission Limits in the State of Utah
In this report, we review the long-term climate history of Utah and find little in the way of eviden ...
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In a provocative paper they entitled "Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation w ...
»The Extinction Risk for Stationary Plants
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»Benefits of Atmospheric C02 Enrichment on Strawberries
Nearly all agricultural plants benefit from increases in the air's CO2 content and strawberry (Fraga ...
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It has been claimed that CO2-induced global warming will be so great and so rapid that many of Earth ...
»Stop Climate Fear Mongering
The massively funded international global warming movement has grossly exaggerated the threat from C ...
»Was 2014 the Warmest Year on Record? No, It Wasn't...
Nature trumpets “2014 was the hottest year on record,” citing the Japan Meteorological Agency, the W ...
»Problems with Model Predictions of Species Extinctions
The world's climate alarmists contend that CO2-induced global warming will lead to numerous extincti ...


Date published: Sat, 28 Mar 2015 14:44:04 +0000
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In late February the BoM forecast March and April rain as follows. Now rain to date for March (1st t ...
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<< Previous thread | Next thread >>   
Ocean Sediment, It's A Gas by Dr. Doug L. Hoffman

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Author Post
Denny
Wed May 11 2011, 08:56AMQuote
Registered Member #140
Joined: Sun May 11 2008, 12:38PM
Posts: 2178




Methane is an important greenhouse gas, 30 times more potent than CO2, but our knowledge of the methane cycle is woefully inadequate. Sediments on the ocean's floor contain immense quantities of methane and there are enormous fluxes of methane into and out of these sediments. Trapped frozen in ice, there are some 10,000 gigatons of carbon stored under the sea—twice as much carbon as contained in conventional fossil fuel reserves. Some scientists consider the release of this methane the single worst environmental danger we face as a species. A massive release of ocean floor methane could cause real runaway global warming that would have dramatic impact on life. But methane continually leaks from seabeds around the world, contributing to the total amount of carbon injected into the ecosystem. A new report finds that ocean methane concentrations have been underestimated by a factor of 10 to 20 fold.

Estimates of sedimentary methane production vary between 85 and 300 Tg per year, but analytical difficulties have made previous measurements too imprecise to tell what the true amount is. Most previous estimates were calculated from ship board readings, not measurements taken at depth. According to a report in Geophysical Research Letters, Zhang et al., in order to avoid the sampling issues that have plagued other methods, employed an in situ technique to measure methane concentrations in sediments. Motivation for the research and general results are listed in the abstract:


Ocean sediment dissolved CH4 concentrations are of interest for possible climate-driven venting from sea floor hydrate decomposition, for supporting the large-scale microbial anaerobic oxidation of CH4 that holds the oceanic CH4 budget in balance, and for environmental issues of the oil and gas industry. Analyses of CH4 from recovered cores near vent locations typically show a maximum of ∼1 mM, close to the 1 atmosphere equilibrium value. We show from novel in situ measurement with a Raman-based probe that geochemically coherent profiles of dissolved CH4 occur rising to 30 mM (pCH4 = 3 MPa) or an excess pressure ∼3× greater than CO2 in a bottle of champagne. Normalization of the CH4 Raman ν1 peak to the ubiquitous water ν2 bending peak provides a fundamental internal calibration. Very large losses of CH4 and fractions of other gases (CO2, H2S) must typically occur from recovered cores at gas rich sites. The new data are consistent with observations of microbial biomass and observed CH4 oxidation rates at hydrate rich sites and support estimates of a greatly expanded near surface oceanic pore water CH4 reservoir.


In short, they found concentrations as much as 10 to 20 times higher than those determined by shipboard measurements and conclude that production rates are near the high end of past estimates. Researchers have known since the 1960s that there are large natural deposits of frozen ice containing methane lying on the ocean floor, where the high pressure and cold temperature keep them from melting. Oceanographers have pulled up frozen chunks of this material, called methane clathrate or hydrate, from more than 90 locations around the world.



Methane clathrate deep ocean deposit.

Clathrate hydrates are cage-like minerals in which water forms an ice-like cage structure in which gas molecules, such as methane, reside. Huge amounts of methane clathrate exist under the high pressures and cold temperatures of the seafloor, forming a major reservoir of greenhouse gas. Unsurprisingly, some energy companies are investigating ways to tap into this huge reservoir of trapped natural gas.

Other key findings include measurements giving a 30× increase in methane concentration and the conclusion that pore water methane is a massively underestimated carbon reservoir. Note that, when sediment particles get deposited on the seafloor they carry some ocean water with them. Water trapped in this way, scientists call “pore water” because it fills the pores between the sediment grains. Because this water is in contact with methane bearing clathrate ice, it also contains elevated levels of CH4.

In fact, there must be high levels of gas in the water saturating the mud that methane ice is buried in. Otherwise, according to Peter Brewer, ocean chemist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, the hydrate will not be stable. “If you just put a block of methane hydrate on the sea floor it will dissolve really fast,” says Brewer. “The hydrates in sediments have to be in equilibrium with the water around them, which must contain huge amounts of methane. One would guess it is about the same as the amount in the clathrate itself.”

This is why Brewer and his PhD student Xin Zhang, the papers lead author, equipped a remotely piloted submersible with a Raman-based probe to measure methane in place. Raman spectroscopy is well suited to chemical analysis on the ocean floor. The robotic sub can stick its metal probe into the mud next to a hydrate deposit and suck up water, and then a laser beam reveals the amount of methane and other substances in that water. Bottom line: there's a lot more methane down there than is apparent from cores brought to the surface.



A Raman spectroscopy laser on the sea floor.

So are the merchants of doom correct? Could a seafloor eruption of methane cause another episode of rapid warming like that of the PETM or even the more prolonged warming of the recently discovered Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum.? Brewer thinks that a mass releases of sea-floor methane is unlikely to cause a blip in today's climate. More likely would be for any released gas to get digested by bacteria or dissolved into sea water, instead of released to the atmosphere. “It's not a scare story,” says Brewer, in an article on Nature.com.

Other than having oceanographers all atwitter, what do these new findings mean? It means that we have discovered science has a long way to go before it can claim to truly understand the carbon cycle. Particularly the sort of mid term sequestration of carbon represented by methane clathrates, falling as it does between the short term cycle of vegetation growth and decomposition, and the long term cycle of geological sequestration. There is more carbon being cycled through Earth's environment than science knows about—10, 20, even 30 times more than previous estimates in this case. It comes from sources undetected and is consumed by processes unknown. But there is a larger lesson here.

What is important about the work done by Zhang et al. is that they devised better instruments and then actually went out and measured the gas they were studying. In other words they did real science—they didn't just muck about with computer models, or even haul samples back to the lab for measurement. They gathered data about methane ice from where it occurs: on the bottom of the ocean. Real experiment, real observations, real science. If only the twits making doomsday predictions based on their software playthings had as much scientific integrity. But then the whole global warming crisis would fizz away, like a clathrate hauled from its ocean larder.

Be safe, enjoy the interglacial and stay skeptical.


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