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World Climate Report

» A Classic Tale of Global Warming Alarmism

» More Evidence Against a Methane Time Bomb

» Agriculture: Tropical Cyclones are Welcome Visitors

» Sea Level Acceleration: Not so Fast

» Hansen Is Wrong

» Earth’s Carbon Sink Still Strong and Growing

» Wild Speculation on Climate and Polar Bears

» Illiteracy at NASA

» The Heat Was On—Before Urbanization and Greenhouse Gases

» What’s to Blame for the Rains on the Plains?

NewsBusters - Global Warming

» CNN's Blitzer: 'I Don't Remember' Biden's Law School Plagiarism

» CNN's Chetry: 'Please Tell Me It's Not Lipstick Again'

» MRC Report Asks: Why No Fairness Doctrine for PBS?

Science and Public Policy Institute

Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Research Group

» Roger Pielke Sr. is now on Twitter!

» 2012 Climate Science Weblog in Review by Dallas Jean Staley – A Guest Post

» The Weblog Is Retiring

» Publication Of “Reply to “Comment On ‘Ocean Heat Content And Earth’s Radiation Imbalance. II. Relation To Climate Shifts’ ” by Nuccitelli Et Al. By Douglass and Knox 2012

» Q&A From A Group Of Retired NASA Personnel And Associates

» The Importance of Land Use/Land Practices On Climate – A Perspective From Jon Foley

» Interview With James Wynn In The English Department At Carnegie Mellon University

» University Of Alabama At Huntsville October 2012 Lower Tropospheric Temperature Analysis

» USA Election Day 2012

» New Paper “Climatic Variability Over Time Scales Spanning Nine Orders of Magnitude: Connecting Milankovitch Cycles With Hurst–Kolmogorov Dynamics” By Markonis And Koutsoyiannis


» Shukla’s Gold

» Reckless Misinformation from Barry Klinger and the RICO 20

» The “Blade” of Ocean2K

» The Ocean2K “Hockey Stick”

» Op Ed on Deflategate

» Did McNally Inflate One Football in the Washroom?

» Letter to Daniel Marlow on Exponent Error

» Exponent’s Trick to Exaggerate the Decline

» Who “Told” Exponent Not to Consider Switching Scenario?

» Goodell and Deflategate Science



Global Warming News

» Sierra Club President’s Testimony Reveals It’s Worse Than We Thought. Climate Change? No. Group Think About Climate Change.

» What to Make of India’s Carbon-Intensity Pledge

» Free Market Groups Submit Joint Comment Letter on Obama Administration’s Heavy Truck Greenhouse Gas/Fuel Economy Standards

» Fault for Awful Ozone Rule Lies with Congress and the Courts (for giving all the decision making authority to CASAC)

» Regarding Failure of D.C. Climate Rally, Headlines Say It All

» September Was Cruelest Month for Jonathan Chait’s Feature on Climate Change Policy in New York Magazine

» ‘Moderate’ Rs Call for ‘Action’ on Climate (Crank Me-Too Amplifiers Up to Eleven)

» Obama’s Not-So-Grand Energy Strategy: *Aimless Authoritarianism*

» Pope Francis Will Try To Meet with Ailing Fidel Castro and Will Be Met by Obamas at Andrews AFB

» Why Climate Diplomacy Makes Me Laugh








More Global Warming Hoax News Feeds

Since Exxon Hasn't Sent Us Our First Million Dollars Yet You're Welcome To Help Pay Our Bills Until They Do.


»Sierra Club Prez Squirms, Consults, Ignores Cruz’s Satellite Data Questions – ‘he looks like Al Capone on trial’
Asked about satellite temperature data showing no significant warming trend over the last 18 years, ...
»Sec. Of State Kerry: ‘We Have Climate Refugees Today’
Speaking Monday in Valparaiso, Chile, Secretary of State John Kerry was asked why the term "climate ...
»Obama creates new position ‘dedicated solely to messaging the global warming agenda’
»Benefits to the Weatherization Assistance Program’s Energy Efficiency Investments Four Times the Costs
The Department of Energy (DOE) has since released 36 documents (here and here), totaling 4,446 pages ...
»Ted Cruz Presses Sierra Club On Global Warming Pause
When asked about the 18 year pause in global warming, as documented by satellite data, Mr. Mair deni ...
»Documents Reveal Dem Efforts to Discredit EPA Critics: Emails and talking points memos detail ways to ‘sow doubts about our opponents motives’
»NYT’s Andrew Revkin Admits UN IPCC Operates Like Religion: Process ‘is not too dissimilar to the white smoke rising from a Vatican chimney’
»New Chair of the U.N. Climate Panel
»Hulk actor Mark Ruffalo: Entire GOP Has ‘Turned Their Back on Science’
»Climatologist Dr. Tim Ball: ‘Environmentalists Are The New Puritans: Religious Bullies’

Date published: Wed, 07 Oct 2015 19:51:21 +0000

»South Carolina Flooding is NOT a 1 in 1,000 Year Event
There is no question that the flooding in South Carolina is exceptional, even historic. But a once o ...
»Historic Flooding in South Carolina Expected
UPDATE: (8:50 a.m. EDT Sunday, Oct. 4). As predicted, heavy rain has spread over much of SC during t ...
»UAH V6.0 Global Temperature Update for Sept. 2015: +0.25 deg C
NOTE: This is the sixth monthly update with our new Version 6.0 dataset. Differences versus the old ...
»Hurricane Joaquin: False Alarm for the U.S. East Coast?
The GFS model runs from last night and this morning have shifted the track of Hurricane Joaquin sign ...
»Hurricane Joaquin: “Established by God”
After ten years without a major (Cat3+) hurricane hit on the U.S., intensifying Hurricane Joaquin (f ...
»Minnesota Hearing Addresses the Social Cost of Carbon
I testified before an administrative law judge (ALJ) in St. Paul, MN last week as part of a process ...
»S. Fred Singer: A 1960s Trailblazer for Satellite Remote Sensing
Those of you who follow our efforts to bring some balance to offset global warming alarmism also lik ...
»Satellite Reveals Biblical Mideast Duststorm
The dust storm currently impacting the Middle East started over northern Syria two days ago, and has ...
»UAH V6.0 Global Temperature Update for Aug. 2015: +0.28 C
NOTE: This is the fifth monthly update with our new Version 6.0 dataset. Differences versus the old ...
»Hurricane Fred a New Record: Farthest East
Newly formed Hurricane Fred over the Cape Verde Islands is, as far as I can tell, the farthest east ...

Date published: Tue, 06 Oct 2015 15:13:59 +0000

»Matt Ridley: What the Climate Wars Did to Science
I cannot recommend Matt Ridley’s new article strongly enough.  It covers a lot of ground be he ...
»Manual Adjustments in the Temperature Record
I have been getting inquiries from folks asking me what I think about stories like this one, where P ...
»Mistaking Cyclical Variations for the Trend
I titled my very first climate video “What is Normal,” alluding to the fact that climate ...
»Typhoons and Hurricanes
(Cross-posted from Coyoteblog) The science that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and causes some warming is h ...
»Those Who Follow Climate Will Definitely Recognize This
This issue will be familiar to anyone who has spent time with temperature graphs.  We can ask oursel ...
»Layman’s Primer on the Climate Skeptic Position
I am a “lukewarmer”, which means a skeptic that agrees that man-made CO2 is incrementall ...
»When Climate Alarmism Limits Environmental Progress
One of my favorite sayings is that “years from now, environmentalists will look back on the cu ...
»Why We Are Exaggerating “Extreme Weather”
I have written in article at called Summer of the Shark, Global Warming Edition.  It desc ...
»HydroInfra: Scam! Investment Honeypot for Climate Alarmists
Cross-posted from Coyoteblog. I got an email today from some random Gmail account asking me to write ...
»Presentation: The Science of the Skeptic Position
Here is the most recent version of my presentation “Don’t Panic: The Science of the Clim ...

Date published: Wed, 08 Jul 2015 20:32:04 +0000

»Scientists Ask Obama To Prosecute Global Warming Skeptics
By Michael Bastasch – The science on global warming is settled, so settled that 20 climate sci ...
»Where Have All the Eagles Gone?
Checkout M4GW’s New Music Video.
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By Jim Acosta, CNN Anchorage, Alaska (CNN)To hear the White House describe Alaska, the state has bec ...
»Rise of sea levels is ‘the greatest lie ever told’
By Christopher Booker, The uncompromising verdict of Dr Mörner is that all this talk ...
»How Obama’s New CO2 Rules Will Impact Global CO2 Levels & Temperature
By Elmer Beauregard On Monday Obama came out with his new CO2 regulations increasing the amount of c ...

Date published: Fri, 18 Sep 2015 20:17:30 +0000

»Shukla’s Gold
Roger Pielke Jr recently made the remarkable discovery that, in addition to his university salary fr ...
»Reckless Misinformation from Barry Klinger and the RICO 20
The RICO-20 gang of climate academics commenced its supposed campaign against misinformation with fa ...
»The “Blade” of Ocean2K
I’ve had a longstanding interest in high-resolution ocean proxies (with posts as early as 2005 ...
»The Ocean2K “Hockey Stick”
The long-awaited (and long overdue) PAGES2K synthesis of 57 high-resolution ocean sediment series (O ...
»Op Ed on Deflategate
In Financial Post here. My submitted version was a little harsher. #deflategate For related blog pos ...
»Did McNally Inflate One Football in the Washroom?
In today’s post,  I’m going to show the Deflategate data from a new perspective.   Rathe ...
»Letter to Daniel Marlow on Exponent Error
On June 29, I sent a letter to Ted Wells, notifying him of the erroneous description of key figures ...
»Exponent’s Trick to Exaggerate the Decline
In an earlier article,  I pointed out that essential figures in the Exponent report contained (what ...
»Who “Told” Exponent Not to Consider Switching Scenario?
The transcript of the Brady appeal before Goodell has been released and it’s astonishing to se ...
»Goodell and Deflategate Science
Yesterday, Roger Goodell released his decision on the Brady appeal. Most of the early discussion has ...

Date published: Wed, 07 Oct 2015 20:02:07 +0000

Date published: not known

»So the Australian Govt is slow to issue Geert Wilders a visa – the Australian Liberty Alliance should stand on its own two feet and launch the party ASAP
The ABC reports – Geert Wilders’ visa delay ‘an assault on freedom of speech ...
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Enjoy this fascinating timeline of the life and achievments of our new Prime Minister.
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Date published: Mon, 05 Oct 2015 01:20:11 +0000
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Ocean Sediment, It's A Gas by Dr. Doug L. Hoffman

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Author Post
Wed May 11 2011, 08:56AMQuote
Registered Member #140
Joined: Sun May 11 2008, 12:38PM
Posts: 2178

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, 30 times more potent than CO2, but our knowledge of the methane cycle is woefully inadequate. Sediments on the ocean's floor contain immense quantities of methane and there are enormous fluxes of methane into and out of these sediments. Trapped frozen in ice, there are some 10,000 gigatons of carbon stored under the sea—twice as much carbon as contained in conventional fossil fuel reserves. Some scientists consider the release of this methane the single worst environmental danger we face as a species. A massive release of ocean floor methane could cause real runaway global warming that would have dramatic impact on life. But methane continually leaks from seabeds around the world, contributing to the total amount of carbon injected into the ecosystem. A new report finds that ocean methane concentrations have been underestimated by a factor of 10 to 20 fold.

Estimates of sedimentary methane production vary between 85 and 300 Tg per year, but analytical difficulties have made previous measurements too imprecise to tell what the true amount is. Most previous estimates were calculated from ship board readings, not measurements taken at depth. According to a report in Geophysical Research Letters, Zhang et al., in order to avoid the sampling issues that have plagued other methods, employed an in situ technique to measure methane concentrations in sediments. Motivation for the research and general results are listed in the abstract:

Ocean sediment dissolved CH4 concentrations are of interest for possible climate-driven venting from sea floor hydrate decomposition, for supporting the large-scale microbial anaerobic oxidation of CH4 that holds the oceanic CH4 budget in balance, and for environmental issues of the oil and gas industry. Analyses of CH4 from recovered cores near vent locations typically show a maximum of ∼1 mM, close to the 1 atmosphere equilibrium value. We show from novel in situ measurement with a Raman-based probe that geochemically coherent profiles of dissolved CH4 occur rising to 30 mM (pCH4 = 3 MPa) or an excess pressure ∼3× greater than CO2 in a bottle of champagne. Normalization of the CH4 Raman ν1 peak to the ubiquitous water ν2 bending peak provides a fundamental internal calibration. Very large losses of CH4 and fractions of other gases (CO2, H2S) must typically occur from recovered cores at gas rich sites. The new data are consistent with observations of microbial biomass and observed CH4 oxidation rates at hydrate rich sites and support estimates of a greatly expanded near surface oceanic pore water CH4 reservoir.

In short, they found concentrations as much as 10 to 20 times higher than those determined by shipboard measurements and conclude that production rates are near the high end of past estimates. Researchers have known since the 1960s that there are large natural deposits of frozen ice containing methane lying on the ocean floor, where the high pressure and cold temperature keep them from melting. Oceanographers have pulled up frozen chunks of this material, called methane clathrate or hydrate, from more than 90 locations around the world.

Methane clathrate deep ocean deposit.

Clathrate hydrates are cage-like minerals in which water forms an ice-like cage structure in which gas molecules, such as methane, reside. Huge amounts of methane clathrate exist under the high pressures and cold temperatures of the seafloor, forming a major reservoir of greenhouse gas. Unsurprisingly, some energy companies are investigating ways to tap into this huge reservoir of trapped natural gas.

Other key findings include measurements giving a 30× increase in methane concentration and the conclusion that pore water methane is a massively underestimated carbon reservoir. Note that, when sediment particles get deposited on the seafloor they carry some ocean water with them. Water trapped in this way, scientists call “pore water” because it fills the pores between the sediment grains. Because this water is in contact with methane bearing clathrate ice, it also contains elevated levels of CH4.

In fact, there must be high levels of gas in the water saturating the mud that methane ice is buried in. Otherwise, according to Peter Brewer, ocean chemist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, the hydrate will not be stable. “If you just put a block of methane hydrate on the sea floor it will dissolve really fast,” says Brewer. “The hydrates in sediments have to be in equilibrium with the water around them, which must contain huge amounts of methane. One would guess it is about the same as the amount in the clathrate itself.”

This is why Brewer and his PhD student Xin Zhang, the papers lead author, equipped a remotely piloted submersible with a Raman-based probe to measure methane in place. Raman spectroscopy is well suited to chemical analysis on the ocean floor. The robotic sub can stick its metal probe into the mud next to a hydrate deposit and suck up water, and then a laser beam reveals the amount of methane and other substances in that water. Bottom line: there's a lot more methane down there than is apparent from cores brought to the surface.

A Raman spectroscopy laser on the sea floor.

So are the merchants of doom correct? Could a seafloor eruption of methane cause another episode of rapid warming like that of the PETM or even the more prolonged warming of the recently discovered Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum.? Brewer thinks that a mass releases of sea-floor methane is unlikely to cause a blip in today's climate. More likely would be for any released gas to get digested by bacteria or dissolved into sea water, instead of released to the atmosphere. “It's not a scare story,” says Brewer, in an article on

Other than having oceanographers all atwitter, what do these new findings mean? It means that we have discovered science has a long way to go before it can claim to truly understand the carbon cycle. Particularly the sort of mid term sequestration of carbon represented by methane clathrates, falling as it does between the short term cycle of vegetation growth and decomposition, and the long term cycle of geological sequestration. There is more carbon being cycled through Earth's environment than science knows about—10, 20, even 30 times more than previous estimates in this case. It comes from sources undetected and is consumed by processes unknown. But there is a larger lesson here.

What is important about the work done by Zhang et al. is that they devised better instruments and then actually went out and measured the gas they were studying. In other words they did real science—they didn't just muck about with computer models, or even haul samples back to the lab for measurement. They gathered data about methane ice from where it occurs: on the bottom of the ocean. Real experiment, real observations, real science. If only the twits making doomsday predictions based on their software playthings had as much scientific integrity. But then the whole global warming crisis would fizz away, like a clathrate hauled from its ocean larder.

Be safe, enjoy the interglacial and stay skeptical.

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