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World Climate Report

» A Classic Tale of Global Warming Alarmism

» More Evidence Against a Methane Time Bomb

» Agriculture: Tropical Cyclones are Welcome Visitors

» Sea Level Acceleration: Not so Fast

» Hansen Is Wrong

» Earth’s Carbon Sink Still Strong and Growing

» Wild Speculation on Climate and Polar Bears

» Illiteracy at NASA

» The Heat Was On—Before Urbanization and Greenhouse Gases

» What’s to Blame for the Rains on the Plains?

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NewsBusters - Global Warming

» CNN's Blitzer: 'I Don't Remember' Biden's Law School Plagiarism

» CNN's Chetry: 'Please Tell Me It's Not Lipstick Again'

» MRC Report Asks: Why No Fairness Doctrine for PBS?

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Science and Public Policy Institute

» Observed Climate Change and the Negligible Global Effect of Greenhouse-gas Emission Limits in the State of Utah

» Experimental Artifacts of Free-Air-C02-Enrichment (FACE) Studies

» The Extinction Risk for Stationary Plants

» Benefits of Atmospheric C02 Enrichment on Strawberries

» Forest Growth Responses to Increasing Temperatures

» Stop Climate Fear Mongering

» Was 2014 the Warmest Year on Record? No, It Wasn't...

» Problems with Model Predictions of Species Extinctions

» The Influence of C02 on Plant Antioxidants

» Health Effects of Hot vs. Cold Temperatures in Asia

» Coral Reef Responses to Temperature and Stress: Thermal Adaptation

» Forest Growth Response to C02

» Onward Marches the Great Pause

» Response of Various Marine Animals to Ocean Acidification and Warming

» FACE Experiments and Grassland Species

» Effects of Ocean Acidification on Fish

» Response of Fish to Ocean Warming

» Additional Grounds for Rejecting Biofuels

» The Global Medieval Warm Period

» Growth Rates of Old Versus Young Forest Trees

» Water Use Efficiency of Agricultural Species

» Tropical Trees

» Global Temperatures and Biospheric Productivity

» Rewriting Sunspot History

» Analysis of the Second Order Draft of the Working I Contribution to IPCC 5AR

***
Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Research Group

» Roger Pielke Sr. is now on Twitter!

» 2012 Climate Science Weblog in Review by Dallas Jean Staley – A Guest Post

» The Weblog Is Retiring

» Publication Of “Reply to “Comment On ‘Ocean Heat Content And Earth’s Radiation Imbalance. II. Relation To Climate Shifts’ ” by Nuccitelli Et Al. By Douglass and Knox 2012

» Q&A From A Group Of Retired NASA Personnel And Associates

» The Importance of Land Use/Land Practices On Climate – A Perspective From Jon Foley

» Interview With James Wynn In The English Department At Carnegie Mellon University

» University Of Alabama At Huntsville October 2012 Lower Tropospheric Temperature Analysis

» USA Election Day 2012

» New Paper “Climatic Variability Over Time Scales Spanning Nine Orders of Magnitude: Connecting Milankovitch Cycles With Hurst–Kolmogorov Dynamics” By Markonis And Koutsoyiannis

***


» Revkin’s Source

» Andrew Weaver: Libel Chill or Libel “Polar Vortex”

» Marotzke and Forster’s circular attribution of CMIP5 intermodel warming differences

» Important New North American East Coast Proxy Data

» Ground-truthing Marcott

» More Mann Grafting

» Mann and the Legacy of “Bogus”

» One of Carvin’s Gaffes

» Oral Argument 2: EPA on “Fraud” Allegations

» Oral Argument 1: Context

***
Watts Up With That?

» Can Adjustments Right a Wrong?

» The 2014-15 El Niño – Part 23 – NOAA’s Forward-Looking El Niño Advisory Was Also Dictated by Conditions since Last September

» It Would Not Matter If Trenberth Was Correct (Now Includes January Data)

» Think UHI doesn’t affect the climate? Think again.

» Study: Green household products have hidden toxic hazards

» NOAA Claims: ‘Elusive El Niño arrives’ – the question is, ‘where’?

» Another Couple of Notes about Michael Mann’s “Faux Pause” Post and Steinman et al. 2015

» State of the Sea Ice – February 2015

» Aussie Govt Report: Climate Change could be Beneficial

» Rebutting the claim: Did Human-Caused Climate Change Lead to War in Syria?

» Nominate Judith Curry as the next Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change

» Eyeroller: American Thoracic Society Survey Says – Climate change affects your health!

***
Global Warming News

» Rumor Has It: EPA Considers Dropping CCS from Carbon Pollution Standards

» Sobering Slides on the EU’s 60-by-50 Climate Treaty Proposal

» As Europeans Flock to SUVs, EPA Administrator McCarthy’s Assessment of CAFE Standards Looks Even More Ridiculous Than It Did a Week Ago

» Net Metering for Dummies

» Top Five EPA Transparency Scandals during the Obama Administration

» Energy/Environment Media Bullet Points

» CEI Drops Other Shoe on McCarthy Mimics in Congressional Democratic Caucus

» Rep. John Yarmuth Is Latest To Suffer from Type-II Climate Derangement Syndrome

» New York Times Repeats Scurrilous Greenpeace Attack on Willie Soon Without Checking the Facts

» Lies and Other Lowlights from EPA Administrator McCarthy’s Testimonies on FY 2016 Budget before the House This Week

***
Fox News - Climate Change Stories

***
Michelle Malkin - Enviro-Nitwits

» Guess what might be to blame for the rise of ISIS

» Starbucks working diligently to protect the planet from threat posed by whipped cream

» Great Lakes’ failure to cooperate with Al Gore’s doomsday alarmism a sure sign of climate change, says Bill Nye

» Bill Nye shares climate change proof: The Wyoming hills are alive with ‘science’!

» Man-made climate change alarmists continue to be busted revising history

***
DailyTech Michael Asher`s blog

» Will the Real Antarctica Please Stand Up?

» Global Warming May Decrease Hurricanes, Research Suggests

» Japanese Report Disputes Human Cause for Global Warming

» Sea Ice Ends Year at Same Level as 1979

» A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the (Climate) Forum

» Climate Report Downgrades Ice Loss; Media Reports Opposite

» Princeton Physicist Calls Global Warming Science "Mistaken"

» Defying Predictions, Sea Level Rise Begins to Slow

» Electric Car Sales in Freefall; Industry Risks Collapse

» Glaciers in Norway Growing Again

***
C3 - Climate Cycles Change

***
CATO - Global Warming

» Who Authored Obamacare's Exchanges? King v. Burwell and Justice Kagan's Law Clerks

» In Alabama, a Victory for School Choice

» The Melting Pot Meets the Voting Booth

» Seven Things You Should Know about the IRS Rule Challenged in King v. Burwell

» Do We Need the DHS?

» Jobs Depend on Obamacare Defeat

» U.S. Catholic League Reveals Why ISIS Must Be Destroyed

» Protect Taxpayers from Illegal Taxes

» The Mumbo-Jumbo of 'Middle-Class Economics'

» Going Postal, Again

» NATO's Latest Gambit: Membership Not Required

» The Bizarre Priorities of Trans-Pacific Partnership Proponents

» The World a Year from Now

» National Security State

» A Litmus Test for ObamaCare and the Rule of Law

» Currency Wars, Again

» What Terrorists Are Really Angry About

» Common Core Confusion: Blame Supporters

» Libya: Hold Policymakers Accountable for another Washington War Gone Bad

» Hillary the Stealth Candidate

» Terrorism Poses No Existential Threat to America. We Must Stop Pretending Otherwise

» I’m an Immigrant and a Reform Advocate. Obama's Executive Actions Are a Disaster for the Cause.

» President Obama Is Apparently Not Imperial Enough for the GOP

» India's Next Budget Needs a Vision for Leading Asia

» US Wants to Hack Your Phone Because It Doesn't Have Real Spies It Needs

***
CanadaFreePress - Global Warming

» EPA to Regulate Methane Emissions Despite Huge Decline

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Headlines

»Democrats on ‘witch hunt’ for doomsday-denying climate scientists
»Warmist who pondered vasectomy to fight AGW has baby! ‘In 2013, I publicly considered a vasectomy because of climate change. Now, we have a baby’
Warmist weatherman Eric Holthaus: 'I had a breakdown. But I never got the vasectomy...My wife and I ...
»New York Times: ‘Morano is a cheerful and unapologetic promoter of climate-change skepticism’
NYT film review of warmist documentary 'Merchants of Doubt': 'Public relations, in contrast, is buil ...
»Warmist producer of Oreskes film: ‘Morano was very funny, very charming, and I think does great damage, but he was honest’
San Fran Chronicle: Marc Morano, whose job it is to rebut climate change, is not only candid but als ...
»Flashback 1985: Gov’t Scientists Once Predicted NYC Would Resemble Daytona Beach
»Review: Warmist film features ‘a semi-affectionate portrait of professional attack dog Marc Morano’
Review of 'Merchants of Doubt': 'The totally amoral Morano, who more or less admits that he’s only i ...
»Watch Now: Flashback 1972: Walter Cronkite on CBS Warned of ‘New Ice Age’
On Sept. 11, 1972, Cronkite cited scientists’ predictions that there was a “new ice age” coming. He ...
»Open Letter: Warmist Oreskes ‘Merchants of Doubt’ may face ‘potential major legal entanglement?’
»Boston: 210 roof collapses in past month due to snow
»K-Cup inventor regrets creating coffee pods due to env. impact: ‘I feel bad sometimes that I ever did it’


Date published: Thu, 05 Mar 2015 22:33:44 +0000
Details

»Of Bad Luck and Space Mission Numbering
A couple of days ago, one of DoD’s polar-orbiting weather satellites — “F-13 ...
»UAH Global Temperature Update for Feb. 2015: +0.30 deg. C
The Version 5.6 global average lower tropospheric temperature (LT) anomaly for February, 2015 is +0. ...
»40 deg. Temperature Drop for Deep South
A strong cold front is forming today and will plunge through the Deep South, bringing a 40 deg. F te ...
»Snow for all 50 States Forecast in Next 7 Days
The unseasonable cold is expected to continue over much of the U.S., with some interruptions, and th ...
»On Natural Climate Variability and Climate Models
The “pause” in global warming is becoming increasingly difficult for the climate establi ...
»The ‘Skeptical Seven’ Witch Hunt is Just the Beginning
Congressman Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ) has sent letters to universities requesting information on the sour ...
»6 Inches of Snow in 10 Seconds
North Alabama got an unusual 6-9 inches of snow last evening, very similar to a storm we had one yea ...
»Pachauri Quits IPCC
Rajendra Pachauri has resigned the IPCC in the wake of sexual harassment allegations. I predict the ...
»2015 Annual Hockey Stick Awards
I attended the 28th annual Hockey Stick Awards ceremony, which was held Sunday evening in Dubai, whe ...
»Lake Superior Ice Cover Well Ahead of 2014
Remember the amazing ice cover of last year on Lake Superior? Well, the coverage today stands at 93% ...


Date published: Wed, 04 Mar 2015 19:30:26 +0000
Details

»Manual Adjustments in the Temperature Record
I have been getting inquiries from folks asking me what I think about stories like this one, where P ...
»Mistaking Cyclical Variations for the Trend
I titled my very first climate video “What is Normal,” alluding to the fact that climate ...
»Typhoons and Hurricanes
(Cross-posted from Coyoteblog) The science that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and causes some warming is h ...
»Those Who Follow Climate Will Definitely Recognize This
This issue will be familiar to anyone who has spent time with temperature graphs.  We can ask oursel ...
»Layman’s Primer on the Climate Skeptic Position
I am a “lukewarmer”, which means a skeptic that agrees that man-made CO2 is incrementall ...
»When Climate Alarmism Limits Environmental Progress
One of my favorite sayings is that “years from now, environmentalists will look back on the cu ...
»Why We Are Exaggerating “Extreme Weather”
I have written in article at Forbes.com called Summer of the Shark, Global Warming Edition.  It desc ...
»HydroInfra: Scam! Investment Honeypot for Climate Alarmists
Cross-posted from Coyoteblog. I got an email today from some random Gmail account asking me to write ...
»Presentation: The Science of the Skeptic Position
Here is the most recent version of my presentation “Don’t Panic: The Science of the Clim ...
»Switching Back to Disqus
For a variety of reasons, I had to turn off Disqus a while back.  We are going back to it for commen ...


Date published: Mon, 09 Feb 2015 17:37:18 +0000
Details




Date published: not known
Details

»Revkin’s Source
In Andy Revkin’s article about Pachauri’s resignation, Revkin, apparently without awaren ...
»Andrew Weaver: Libel Chill or Libel “Polar Vortex”
Andrew Weaver has been taking a victory lap following the recent decision in his favor by rookie jud ...
»Marotzke and Forster’s circular attribution of CMIP5 intermodel warming differences
A guest post by Nicholas Lewis Introduction A new paper in Nature by Jochem Marotzke and Piers Forst ...
»Important New North American East Coast Proxy Data
One of my long-standing interests is the location of ocean sediment series that enable apples-to-app ...
»Ground-truthing Marcott
The MD99-2275 core offshore Iceland is a very high-resolution ocean sediment core, results of which ...
»More Mann Grafting
Jeff Norman draws attention to Figure 1 in a new Mannian tirade, a variation of Mann’s stump s ...
»Mann and the Legacy of “Bogus”
One of the most bizarre conclusions of D.C. Judge Combs-Greene were her findings that it was actiona ...
»One of Carvin’s Gaffes
In some recent posts, I’ve observed that Carvin made a couple of astonishing gaffes in his ora ...
»Oral Argument 2: EPA on “Fraud” Allegations
Towards the end of Carvin’s mostly cringeworthy rebuttal,  he seemed to score on EPA’s r ...
»Oral Argument 1: Context
I have an audio copy of the oral argument in Mann v Steyn, which I’ve posted up (see link at t ...


Date published: Fri, 06 Mar 2015 06:34:44 +0000
Details

»Observed Climate Change and the Negligible Global Effect of Greenhouse-gas Emission Limits in the State of Utah
In this report, we review the long-term climate history of Utah and find little in the way of eviden ...
»Experimental Artifacts of Free-Air-C02-Enrichment (FACE) Studies
In a provocative paper they entitled "Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation w ...
»The Extinction Risk for Stationary Plants
In addition to migrating to more suitable locations, Earth’s plants have other ways of successfully ...
»Benefits of Atmospheric C02 Enrichment on Strawberries
Nearly all agricultural plants benefit from increases in the air's CO2 content and strawberry (Fraga ...
»Forest Growth Responses to Increasing Temperatures
It has been claimed that CO2-induced global warming will be so great and so rapid that many of Earth ...
»Stop Climate Fear Mongering
The massively funded international global warming movement has grossly exaggerated the threat from C ...
»Was 2014 the Warmest Year on Record? No, It Wasn't...
Nature trumpets “2014 was the hottest year on record,” citing the Japan Meteorological Agency, the W ...
»Problems with Model Predictions of Species Extinctions
The world's climate alarmists contend that CO2-induced global warming will lead to numerous extincti ...
»The Influence of C02 on Plant Antioxidants
Environmental stresses induced by exposure to pollutants, drought, intense solar radiation and high ...
»Health Effects of Hot vs. Cold Temperatures in Asia
Climate alarmists predict global warming will increase human death rates, and nary a heat wave occur ...


Date published: Fri, 06 Mar 2015 15:57:38 +0000
Details

»The ABC hosts the BoM prattling on about a warmer than average Autumn for Canberra but ignores inconvenient fact that the BoM summer Outlook failed for the ACT region
Canberra set for warmer than average autumn due to rise in ocean temperatures: Bureau of Meteorology ...
»Giant US climate group NOAA jumps the shark claiming El Nino has arrived
NOAA: Elusive El Niño arrives – While the 30 day SOI is near neutral? In view that NOAA and ma ...
»Sunspots for February show biggest monthly drop for over a year
RI numbers indicating sunspot activity could be off that shoulder –
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The BoM rain Outlook for summer predicted only minor areas would enjoy above average rain- yet avera ...
»Bad news for climate sceptics as IPCC head resigns – they might select somebody more effective as replacement
IPCC chair Rajendra Pachauri resigns – the article says a permanent replacement will not be se ...
»How pathetic is the West – are we really feeding our enemies in Syria?
Just read this – Let’s Not Feed Our Enemies – and the linked article – Syria ...
»Where are the category 5 wind gust observations for Cyclone Marcia?
The BoM rates Marcia as a Cat 5 now – yet the strongest wind gusts I can find are 208kmh at Mi ...
»The Australian Academy of Science quotes “unusually weak solar activity” as one reason for the post 2001 temperature slowdown
Download the 7MB pdf report – page 10 Box 2.2 for the amazing quote saying […unusually w ...
»Major UK political parties adopt common climate policies – must give a boost to the UKIP
Party leaders make joint climate commitment – seems amazing that the Govt could not separate i ...
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The ABC reported on 12 January that Labor Leader Annastacia Palaszczuk ruled out forming a minority ...


Date published: Thu, 05 Mar 2015 23:22:06 +0000
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Ocean Sediment, It's A Gas by Dr. Doug L. Hoffman

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Author Post
Denny
Wed May 11 2011, 08:56AMQuote
Registered Member #140
Joined: Sun May 11 2008, 12:38PM
Posts: 2178




Methane is an important greenhouse gas, 30 times more potent than CO2, but our knowledge of the methane cycle is woefully inadequate. Sediments on the ocean's floor contain immense quantities of methane and there are enormous fluxes of methane into and out of these sediments. Trapped frozen in ice, there are some 10,000 gigatons of carbon stored under the sea—twice as much carbon as contained in conventional fossil fuel reserves. Some scientists consider the release of this methane the single worst environmental danger we face as a species. A massive release of ocean floor methane could cause real runaway global warming that would have dramatic impact on life. But methane continually leaks from seabeds around the world, contributing to the total amount of carbon injected into the ecosystem. A new report finds that ocean methane concentrations have been underestimated by a factor of 10 to 20 fold.

Estimates of sedimentary methane production vary between 85 and 300 Tg per year, but analytical difficulties have made previous measurements too imprecise to tell what the true amount is. Most previous estimates were calculated from ship board readings, not measurements taken at depth. According to a report in Geophysical Research Letters, Zhang et al., in order to avoid the sampling issues that have plagued other methods, employed an in situ technique to measure methane concentrations in sediments. Motivation for the research and general results are listed in the abstract:


Ocean sediment dissolved CH4 concentrations are of interest for possible climate-driven venting from sea floor hydrate decomposition, for supporting the large-scale microbial anaerobic oxidation of CH4 that holds the oceanic CH4 budget in balance, and for environmental issues of the oil and gas industry. Analyses of CH4 from recovered cores near vent locations typically show a maximum of ∼1 mM, close to the 1 atmosphere equilibrium value. We show from novel in situ measurement with a Raman-based probe that geochemically coherent profiles of dissolved CH4 occur rising to 30 mM (pCH4 = 3 MPa) or an excess pressure ∼3× greater than CO2 in a bottle of champagne. Normalization of the CH4 Raman ν1 peak to the ubiquitous water ν2 bending peak provides a fundamental internal calibration. Very large losses of CH4 and fractions of other gases (CO2, H2S) must typically occur from recovered cores at gas rich sites. The new data are consistent with observations of microbial biomass and observed CH4 oxidation rates at hydrate rich sites and support estimates of a greatly expanded near surface oceanic pore water CH4 reservoir.


In short, they found concentrations as much as 10 to 20 times higher than those determined by shipboard measurements and conclude that production rates are near the high end of past estimates. Researchers have known since the 1960s that there are large natural deposits of frozen ice containing methane lying on the ocean floor, where the high pressure and cold temperature keep them from melting. Oceanographers have pulled up frozen chunks of this material, called methane clathrate or hydrate, from more than 90 locations around the world.



Methane clathrate deep ocean deposit.

Clathrate hydrates are cage-like minerals in which water forms an ice-like cage structure in which gas molecules, such as methane, reside. Huge amounts of methane clathrate exist under the high pressures and cold temperatures of the seafloor, forming a major reservoir of greenhouse gas. Unsurprisingly, some energy companies are investigating ways to tap into this huge reservoir of trapped natural gas.

Other key findings include measurements giving a 30× increase in methane concentration and the conclusion that pore water methane is a massively underestimated carbon reservoir. Note that, when sediment particles get deposited on the seafloor they carry some ocean water with them. Water trapped in this way, scientists call “pore water” because it fills the pores between the sediment grains. Because this water is in contact with methane bearing clathrate ice, it also contains elevated levels of CH4.

In fact, there must be high levels of gas in the water saturating the mud that methane ice is buried in. Otherwise, according to Peter Brewer, ocean chemist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, the hydrate will not be stable. “If you just put a block of methane hydrate on the sea floor it will dissolve really fast,” says Brewer. “The hydrates in sediments have to be in equilibrium with the water around them, which must contain huge amounts of methane. One would guess it is about the same as the amount in the clathrate itself.”

This is why Brewer and his PhD student Xin Zhang, the papers lead author, equipped a remotely piloted submersible with a Raman-based probe to measure methane in place. Raman spectroscopy is well suited to chemical analysis on the ocean floor. The robotic sub can stick its metal probe into the mud next to a hydrate deposit and suck up water, and then a laser beam reveals the amount of methane and other substances in that water. Bottom line: there's a lot more methane down there than is apparent from cores brought to the surface.



A Raman spectroscopy laser on the sea floor.

So are the merchants of doom correct? Could a seafloor eruption of methane cause another episode of rapid warming like that of the PETM or even the more prolonged warming of the recently discovered Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum.? Brewer thinks that a mass releases of sea-floor methane is unlikely to cause a blip in today's climate. More likely would be for any released gas to get digested by bacteria or dissolved into sea water, instead of released to the atmosphere. “It's not a scare story,” says Brewer, in an article on Nature.com.

Other than having oceanographers all atwitter, what do these new findings mean? It means that we have discovered science has a long way to go before it can claim to truly understand the carbon cycle. Particularly the sort of mid term sequestration of carbon represented by methane clathrates, falling as it does between the short term cycle of vegetation growth and decomposition, and the long term cycle of geological sequestration. There is more carbon being cycled through Earth's environment than science knows about—10, 20, even 30 times more than previous estimates in this case. It comes from sources undetected and is consumed by processes unknown. But there is a larger lesson here.

What is important about the work done by Zhang et al. is that they devised better instruments and then actually went out and measured the gas they were studying. In other words they did real science—they didn't just muck about with computer models, or even haul samples back to the lab for measurement. They gathered data about methane ice from where it occurs: on the bottom of the ocean. Real experiment, real observations, real science. If only the twits making doomsday predictions based on their software playthings had as much scientific integrity. But then the whole global warming crisis would fizz away, like a clathrate hauled from its ocean larder.

Be safe, enjoy the interglacial and stay skeptical.


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