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World Climate Report

» A Classic Tale of Global Warming Alarmism

» More Evidence Against a Methane Time Bomb

» Agriculture: Tropical Cyclones are Welcome Visitors

» Sea Level Acceleration: Not so Fast

» Hansen Is Wrong

» Earth’s Carbon Sink Still Strong and Growing

» Wild Speculation on Climate and Polar Bears

» Illiteracy at NASA

» The Heat Was On—Before Urbanization and Greenhouse Gases

» What’s to Blame for the Rains on the Plains?

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NewsBusters - Global Warming

» CNN's Blitzer: 'I Don't Remember' Biden's Law School Plagiarism

» CNN's Chetry: 'Please Tell Me It's Not Lipstick Again'

» MRC Report Asks: Why No Fairness Doctrine for PBS?

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Science and Public Policy Institute

» Mammals in a C02-Enriched and Warmer World

» Climate Model Inadequacies of Earth's Radiative Budget

» Interactive Effects of C02 and Ozone on Birch Trees

» Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Crustaceans

» Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bivalves

» Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bacteria

» Observed Climate Change and the Negligible Global Effect of Greenhouse-gas Emission Limits in the State of Utah

» Experimental Artifacts of Free-Air-C02-Enrichment (FACE) Studies

» The Extinction Risk for Stationary Plants

» Benefits of Atmospheric C02 Enrichment on Strawberries

» Forest Growth Responses to Increasing Temperatures

» Stop Climate Fear Mongering

» Was 2014 the Warmest Year on Record? No, It Wasn't...

» Problems with Model Predictions of Species Extinctions

» The Influence of C02 on Plant Antioxidants

» Health Effects of Hot vs. Cold Temperatures in Asia

» Coral Reef Responses to Temperature and Stress: Thermal Adaptation

» Forest Growth Response to C02

» Onward Marches the Great Pause

» Response of Various Marine Animals to Ocean Acidification and Warming

» FACE Experiments and Grassland Species

» Effects of Ocean Acidification on Fish

» Response of Fish to Ocean Warming

» Additional Grounds for Rejecting Biofuels

» The Global Medieval Warm Period

***
Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Research Group

» Roger Pielke Sr. is now on Twitter!

» 2012 Climate Science Weblog in Review by Dallas Jean Staley – A Guest Post

» The Weblog Is Retiring

» Publication Of “Reply to “Comment On ‘Ocean Heat Content And Earth’s Radiation Imbalance. II. Relation To Climate Shifts’ ” by Nuccitelli Et Al. By Douglass and Knox 2012

» Q&A From A Group Of Retired NASA Personnel And Associates

» The Importance of Land Use/Land Practices On Climate – A Perspective From Jon Foley

» Interview With James Wynn In The English Department At Carnegie Mellon University

» University Of Alabama At Huntsville October 2012 Lower Tropospheric Temperature Analysis

» USA Election Day 2012

» New Paper “Climatic Variability Over Time Scales Spanning Nine Orders of Magnitude: Connecting Milankovitch Cycles With Hurst–Kolmogorov Dynamics” By Markonis And Koutsoyiannis

***


» Scientific American article: “How to Misinterpret Climate Change Research”

» Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 3

» Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 2

» Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 1

» Rahmstorf’s Third Trick

» Rahmstorf’s Second Trick

» Rahmstorf’s First Trick

» Jones and Dixon Refute Conspiracy Theorist Lewandowsky

» Reductio ad mannium

» How Weaver Ignored Corcoran’s Segue

***
Watts Up With That?

» When Will Climate Scientists Say They Were Wrong?

» Potholes In Their Arguments

» NASA: El Niño driven ‘stagnant upper-air pattern spread numerous storms and heavy rains [into] central Texas’ no mention of ‘climate change’

» New Paper Confirms the Drivers of and Processes behind the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

» First Eastern Pacific tropical depression of the season

» German Government In Crisis Over Escalating Cost Of Climate Policy

» Study finds: ‘severe cold snap during the geological age known for its extreme greenhouse climate’

» Almost Friday Funny – Tesla is apparently recharging ’emissions free’ electric cars with a diesel generator

» Recycled: 2035 Himalayan Glacier Claim

» Climate Craziness of the Week – ‘climate change music’

» Leaving the Church of Environmentalism

» The Royal Anti-Science Society of Edinburgh?

***
Global Warming News

» Will EPA Scrap the Carbon Capture Mandate?

» EU Climate Policy: Unsustainability Update

» Tom Steyer’s Windfall Profits Tax: Recyling Junk Policy

» Ethanol Industry Ad Campaign: Fuels America or Fools America?

» Is Ethanol a Green Fuel?

» Independent Satellite Records Agree: Little to No Global Warming over Past 18 Years

» Clean Power Plan “Co-Benefits” Are as Insipid as the Rule’s Direct Benefits (i.e., the idiotic social cost of carbon)

» Clean Power Plan Litigation: Thoughts on Ripeness and Standing

» Forgotten Document Sheds New Light on Legality of EPA Climate Rules

» EPA Administrator McCarthy: A “Carbon Conscious Economy” Is Inevitable, and EPA Will Make Sure It Happens

***
Fox News - Climate Change Stories

***
Michelle Malkin - Enviro-Nitwits

» Obama: U.S. not losing to ISIS, but definitely getting pushed around by ‘climate change’

» Gore / great lakes

» Cher’d sacrifice: They don’t call ’em ‘green’ Hollywood libs for nothing

» Bernie Sanders stumbles upon first campaign slogan: No car in every garage

» Double dribblers at OFA toss up embarrassing desperation shot on ‘climate change’

***
DailyTech Michael Asher`s blog

» Will the Real Antarctica Please Stand Up?

» Global Warming May Decrease Hurricanes, Research Suggests

» Japanese Report Disputes Human Cause for Global Warming

» Sea Ice Ends Year at Same Level as 1979

» A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the (Climate) Forum

» Climate Report Downgrades Ice Loss; Media Reports Opposite

» Princeton Physicist Calls Global Warming Science "Mistaken"

» Defying Predictions, Sea Level Rise Begins to Slow

» Electric Car Sales in Freefall; Industry Risks Collapse

» Glaciers in Norway Growing Again

***
C3 - Climate Cycles Change

***
CATO - Global Warming

» Don't (Just) Let the Sun Go Down on Patriot Powers

» When Will Climate Scientists Say They Were Wrong?

» NSA Surveillance Programs Are a Cancer on the Constitution

» Wall Street Offers Very Real Benefits

» A So-So Republican Budget

» The Ultimate Irony: Is China the 'America' of Asia?

» NYT Shows No One Buys Government’s ‘Term of Art’ Argument in King v. Burwell

» Venezuela: No Rule of Law, Bad Money

» The 4 Percent-Plus Solution

» African Dawn Needs the Rule of Law

» 'Should We Have Waged the Iraq War?' Is Not a Gotcha Question

» Washington's Free-Riding East Asian Allies

» Memo to Congress: Don't Do Something, Just Stand There

» Cuomo's Dangerous Wage-Board Play Will Hurt the Workers He Says He Wants to Help

» Sen. Paul's Great Surveillance 'Filibuster' and What to Expect Next

» The Glaring (Ir)Relevance of Ramadi

» If You Don't Want Your Food Genetically Modified, Tell Nature to Stop It.

» Currency Manipulation Can't be Fixed by Countervailing Duties

» An Open Letter to Governor Hogan: the New Metro Lines Are Too Expensive

» Don't Confuse Tax Credits with School Vouchers

» U.S. Monetary Policy: a Ship with a Broken Rudder

» Assessing the GOP Candidates' Plans on Poverty

» Hank Greenberg's AIG Case Might Not be Open and Shut

» The Pentagon Conned Washington … Again

» Amtrak Is No Way to Run a Railroad

***
CanadaFreePress - Global Warming

» The real climate threat to our national security

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Headlines

»NBC Continues Media Push Blaming Flooding in Texas, Drought in California on Climate Change
»Al Sharpton Asks If God Is Punishing Texas With Torrential Rains, Flooding
Sharpton Tweet: 'Do you think the #TexasFlooding is related to climate control or God's rebuke?'
»Santorum: ‘The idea that the science is settled, to me, tells me that this is political science, not real science’
"I always have problems when people come up and say the science is settled," said Santorum, a Republ ...
»Are Sea Levels Really Rising Faster Than Ever? ‘The study’s own data seems to refute’
The study itself notes that its estimates of a sea level acceleration aren’t “significantly differen ...
»‘Are climate scientists influenced by skeptics?’
»Warmist: ‘As weather bounces between record extremes, what say the climate-change deniers?’
»Paper: ‘Are There Any Evils Global Warming Is Not Responsible For?’
»Bill Nye is pretty sure that the Texas storm was caused by global warming
»Scientists Don’t Actually Know What’s Causing ‘Extreme Weather’
»‘Is The Catholic Church Drifting Into Eco-Spirituality?’


Date published: Fri, 29 May 2015 17:54:29 +0000
Details

»TRMM Satellite Coming Home Next Month
NASA’s Tropical Rain Measuring Mission, the first satellite to carry a rain radar, has been on ...
»New Satellite Upper Troposphere Product: Still No Tropical “Hotspot”
One of the most vivid predictions of global warming theory is a “hotspot” in the tropica ...
»Iraq’s Largest Oil Refinery Still Burning After 5 Weeks
The latest NASA MODIS satellite imagery from today shows that the huge Baiji oil complex continues t ...
»Nearly 3,500 Days Since Major Hurricane Strike… Despite Record High CO2
As Subtropical Storm Ana churns off the southeast U.S. coast, the global atmosphere has exceeded 400 ...
»Mystery Climate Index #2 Explanation
Yesterday I presented this time series of climate data and asked if anyone could determine any physi ...
»Magical Mystery Climate Index #2
A little over a year ago I posted a climate riddle of sorts: a time series that showed warming, then ...
»This EcoNonsense Has To Stop
I was watching a Ford commercial last night that highlighted their “EcoBoost” engine technology, whi ...
»UAH V6.0 Global Temperature Update for April, 2015: +0.07 deg. C
NOTE: This is the first montly update with our new Version 6.0 dataset. Differences versus the old V ...
»Is North Korea Cutting Down All Its Trees?
A secretive government can lie about many things, but it can’t hide its landscape from Earth o ...
»Version 6.0 of the UAH Temperature Dataset Released: New LT Trend = +0.11 C/decade
by Roy W. Spencer, John R. Christy, and William D. Braswell (a PDF version of this post is available ...


Date published: Fri, 22 May 2015 16:20:59 +0000
Details

»Manual Adjustments in the Temperature Record
I have been getting inquiries from folks asking me what I think about stories like this one, where P ...
»Mistaking Cyclical Variations for the Trend
I titled my very first climate video “What is Normal,” alluding to the fact that climate ...
»Typhoons and Hurricanes
(Cross-posted from Coyoteblog) The science that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and causes some warming is h ...
»Those Who Follow Climate Will Definitely Recognize This
This issue will be familiar to anyone who has spent time with temperature graphs.  We can ask oursel ...
»Layman’s Primer on the Climate Skeptic Position
I am a “lukewarmer”, which means a skeptic that agrees that man-made CO2 is incrementall ...
»When Climate Alarmism Limits Environmental Progress
One of my favorite sayings is that “years from now, environmentalists will look back on the cu ...
»Why We Are Exaggerating “Extreme Weather”
I have written in article at Forbes.com called Summer of the Shark, Global Warming Edition.  It desc ...
»HydroInfra: Scam! Investment Honeypot for Climate Alarmists
Cross-posted from Coyoteblog. I got an email today from some random Gmail account asking me to write ...
»Presentation: The Science of the Skeptic Position
Here is the most recent version of my presentation “Don’t Panic: The Science of the Clim ...
»Switching Back to Disqus
For a variety of reasons, I had to turn off Disqus a while back.  We are going back to it for commen ...


Date published: Mon, 09 Feb 2015 17:37:18 +0000
Details




Date published: not known
Details

»Scientific American article: “How to Misinterpret Climate Change Research”
A Scientific American article concerning Bjorn Stevens’ recent paper “Rethinking the low ...
»Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 3
A guest post by Nicholas Lewis In Part 1 I introduced the talk I gave at Ringberg 2015, explained wh ...
»Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 2
A guest post by Nicholas Lewis In Part 1 I introduced the talk I gave at Ringberg 2015, explained wh ...
»Pitfalls in climate sensitivity estimation: Part 1
A guest post by Nicholas Lewis As many readers will be aware, I attended the WCRP Grand Challenge Wo ...
»Rahmstorf’s Third Trick
Rahmstorf et al 2015 Figure 5 shows a coral d15N series from offshore Nova Scotia (see left panel be ...
»Rahmstorf’s Second Trick
The Rahmstorf et al reconstruction commences in AD900 even though the Mann et al 2009 reconstruction ...
»Rahmstorf’s First Trick
In any article by Mann and coauthors, it is always prudent to assume that even seemingly innocent ch ...
»Jones and Dixon Refute Conspiracy Theorist Lewandowsky
Jonathan Jones and Ruth Dixon have published (see Ruth’s blog here) a comment  in Psychologica ...
»Reductio ad mannium
The new article by Rahmstorf and Mann (see RC here) has been criticized at WUWT (here here) for maki ...
»How Weaver Ignored Corcoran’s Segue
Four of the incidents in J Burke’s background chronology in Weaver v National Post (the Januar ...


Date published: Tue, 26 May 2015 01:21:07 +0000
Details

»Mammals in a C02-Enriched and Warmer World
We begin this brief analysis of the effects of global warming and atmospheric CO2 enrichment on Eart ...
»Climate Model Inadequacies of Earth's Radiative Budget
One of the most challenging and important problems facing today's general circulation models of the ...
»Interactive Effects of C02 and Ozone on Birch Trees
Trees grown in CO2-enriched air nearly always exhibit increased rates of photosynthesis and biomass ...
»Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Crustaceans
As the air’s CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as mo ...
»Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bivalves
As the air's CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as mo ...
»Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bacteria
Cyanobacteria-also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta (the smallest of whi ...
»Observed Climate Change and the Negligible Global Effect of Greenhouse-gas Emission Limits in the State of Utah
In this report, we review the long-term climate history of Utah and find little in the way of eviden ...
»Experimental Artifacts of Free-Air-C02-Enrichment (FACE) Studies
In a provocative paper they entitled "Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation w ...
»The Extinction Risk for Stationary Plants
In addition to migrating to more suitable locations, Earth’s plants have other ways of successfully ...
»Benefits of Atmospheric C02 Enrichment on Strawberries
Nearly all agricultural plants benefit from increases in the air's CO2 content and strawberry (Fraga ...


Date published: Fri, 29 May 2015 17:04:40 +0000
Details

»Coldest April night record broken twice in Hughenden and Maryborough in Queensland – various cold night records scattered across Australia through May too
The Courier Mail reported 22nd April – Several Queensland towns hit record low April temperatu ...
»2011 Grantham floods – how significant were breaches in the sand quarry wall
I saw the 60 Minutes segment on the 2011 Grantham floods last Sunday where they raised again the iss ...
»Increasing bank ripoffs exposed in differences between Visa Card purchase rates and RBA cash interest rate
A reader has sent me a spreadsheet that amazed me when I got around to examining the data. We have a ...
»Graphic placing the California drought in millenial perspective – from the San Jose Mercury News in January 2014
California drought: Past dry periods have lasted more than 200 years, scientists say Does anybody kn ...
»Greens ask the BoM Director Dorothy Dix questions at Senate estimates hearing which highlights that no MP’s have the guts to ask the BoM serious questions
The Canberra Times has this story – Bureau of Meteorology rejects Maurice Newman’s clima ...
»Example where the Australian Bureau of Meteorology is told about a fault in rain recording but in two years fail to correct their data
I was told by a reader about a loss of ~18mm rain recorded at Montague Island Lighthouse 69017 (NSW ...
»Why can’t the BoM decide on Canberra official temperatures in four days ?
This puzzles me – here we are Sunday morning the 24th May and the BoM can not settle on the ma ...
»Media beat up about drought in western Queensland – forum in Longreach – not a word about rainfall history
Western Queensland community turns out for drought forum in Longreach The chart shows there have bee ...
»From Chinese icebreaker captain – advice on not getting stuck in sea ice
Page 19/45 of a presentation by Captain Jianzhong Wang of the icebreaker R/V Xuelong given to the CO ...
»French Antarctic research discussing solar signals in sea ice data over the last 11,000 years.
This is a fascinating example of a taboo climate subject we seldom hear from IPCC compliant science ...


Date published: Fri, 29 May 2015 01:15:00 +0000
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<< Previous thread | Next thread >>   
Ocean Sediment, It's A Gas by Dr. Doug L. Hoffman

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Author Post
Denny
Wed May 11 2011, 08:56AMQuote
Registered Member #140
Joined: Sun May 11 2008, 12:38PM
Posts: 2178




Methane is an important greenhouse gas, 30 times more potent than CO2, but our knowledge of the methane cycle is woefully inadequate. Sediments on the ocean's floor contain immense quantities of methane and there are enormous fluxes of methane into and out of these sediments. Trapped frozen in ice, there are some 10,000 gigatons of carbon stored under the sea—twice as much carbon as contained in conventional fossil fuel reserves. Some scientists consider the release of this methane the single worst environmental danger we face as a species. A massive release of ocean floor methane could cause real runaway global warming that would have dramatic impact on life. But methane continually leaks from seabeds around the world, contributing to the total amount of carbon injected into the ecosystem. A new report finds that ocean methane concentrations have been underestimated by a factor of 10 to 20 fold.

Estimates of sedimentary methane production vary between 85 and 300 Tg per year, but analytical difficulties have made previous measurements too imprecise to tell what the true amount is. Most previous estimates were calculated from ship board readings, not measurements taken at depth. According to a report in Geophysical Research Letters, Zhang et al., in order to avoid the sampling issues that have plagued other methods, employed an in situ technique to measure methane concentrations in sediments. Motivation for the research and general results are listed in the abstract:


Ocean sediment dissolved CH4 concentrations are of interest for possible climate-driven venting from sea floor hydrate decomposition, for supporting the large-scale microbial anaerobic oxidation of CH4 that holds the oceanic CH4 budget in balance, and for environmental issues of the oil and gas industry. Analyses of CH4 from recovered cores near vent locations typically show a maximum of ∼1 mM, close to the 1 atmosphere equilibrium value. We show from novel in situ measurement with a Raman-based probe that geochemically coherent profiles of dissolved CH4 occur rising to 30 mM (pCH4 = 3 MPa) or an excess pressure ∼3× greater than CO2 in a bottle of champagne. Normalization of the CH4 Raman ν1 peak to the ubiquitous water ν2 bending peak provides a fundamental internal calibration. Very large losses of CH4 and fractions of other gases (CO2, H2S) must typically occur from recovered cores at gas rich sites. The new data are consistent with observations of microbial biomass and observed CH4 oxidation rates at hydrate rich sites and support estimates of a greatly expanded near surface oceanic pore water CH4 reservoir.


In short, they found concentrations as much as 10 to 20 times higher than those determined by shipboard measurements and conclude that production rates are near the high end of past estimates. Researchers have known since the 1960s that there are large natural deposits of frozen ice containing methane lying on the ocean floor, where the high pressure and cold temperature keep them from melting. Oceanographers have pulled up frozen chunks of this material, called methane clathrate or hydrate, from more than 90 locations around the world.



Methane clathrate deep ocean deposit.

Clathrate hydrates are cage-like minerals in which water forms an ice-like cage structure in which gas molecules, such as methane, reside. Huge amounts of methane clathrate exist under the high pressures and cold temperatures of the seafloor, forming a major reservoir of greenhouse gas. Unsurprisingly, some energy companies are investigating ways to tap into this huge reservoir of trapped natural gas.

Other key findings include measurements giving a 30× increase in methane concentration and the conclusion that pore water methane is a massively underestimated carbon reservoir. Note that, when sediment particles get deposited on the seafloor they carry some ocean water with them. Water trapped in this way, scientists call “pore water” because it fills the pores between the sediment grains. Because this water is in contact with methane bearing clathrate ice, it also contains elevated levels of CH4.

In fact, there must be high levels of gas in the water saturating the mud that methane ice is buried in. Otherwise, according to Peter Brewer, ocean chemist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, the hydrate will not be stable. “If you just put a block of methane hydrate on the sea floor it will dissolve really fast,” says Brewer. “The hydrates in sediments have to be in equilibrium with the water around them, which must contain huge amounts of methane. One would guess it is about the same as the amount in the clathrate itself.”

This is why Brewer and his PhD student Xin Zhang, the papers lead author, equipped a remotely piloted submersible with a Raman-based probe to measure methane in place. Raman spectroscopy is well suited to chemical analysis on the ocean floor. The robotic sub can stick its metal probe into the mud next to a hydrate deposit and suck up water, and then a laser beam reveals the amount of methane and other substances in that water. Bottom line: there's a lot more methane down there than is apparent from cores brought to the surface.



A Raman spectroscopy laser on the sea floor.

So are the merchants of doom correct? Could a seafloor eruption of methane cause another episode of rapid warming like that of the PETM or even the more prolonged warming of the recently discovered Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum.? Brewer thinks that a mass releases of sea-floor methane is unlikely to cause a blip in today's climate. More likely would be for any released gas to get digested by bacteria or dissolved into sea water, instead of released to the atmosphere. “It's not a scare story,” says Brewer, in an article on Nature.com.

Other than having oceanographers all atwitter, what do these new findings mean? It means that we have discovered science has a long way to go before it can claim to truly understand the carbon cycle. Particularly the sort of mid term sequestration of carbon represented by methane clathrates, falling as it does between the short term cycle of vegetation growth and decomposition, and the long term cycle of geological sequestration. There is more carbon being cycled through Earth's environment than science knows about—10, 20, even 30 times more than previous estimates in this case. It comes from sources undetected and is consumed by processes unknown. But there is a larger lesson here.

What is important about the work done by Zhang et al. is that they devised better instruments and then actually went out and measured the gas they were studying. In other words they did real science—they didn't just muck about with computer models, or even haul samples back to the lab for measurement. They gathered data about methane ice from where it occurs: on the bottom of the ocean. Real experiment, real observations, real science. If only the twits making doomsday predictions based on their software playthings had as much scientific integrity. But then the whole global warming crisis would fizz away, like a clathrate hauled from its ocean larder.

Be safe, enjoy the interglacial and stay skeptical.


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