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World Climate Report

» A Classic Tale of Global Warming Alarmism

» More Evidence Against a Methane Time Bomb

» Agriculture: Tropical Cyclones are Welcome Visitors

» Sea Level Acceleration: Not so Fast

» Hansen Is Wrong

» Earth’s Carbon Sink Still Strong and Growing

» Wild Speculation on Climate and Polar Bears

» Illiteracy at NASA

» The Heat Was On—Before Urbanization and Greenhouse Gases

» What’s to Blame for the Rains on the Plains?

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NewsBusters - Global Warming

» CNN's Blitzer: 'I Don't Remember' Biden's Law School Plagiarism

» CNN's Chetry: 'Please Tell Me It's Not Lipstick Again'

» MRC Report Asks: Why No Fairness Doctrine for PBS?

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Science and Public Policy Institute

» Growth Rates of Old Versus Young Forest Trees

» Water Use Efficiency of Agricultural Species

» Tropical Trees

» Global Temperatures and Biospheric Productivity

» Rewriting Sunspot History

» Analysis of the Second Order Draft of the Working I Contribution to IPCC 5AR

» The Economics of Biofuels

» The Warming-Induced Evolution of Terrestrial Plants

» Medieval Warm Period in Southern Europe

» Effects of Elevated C02 on the Stomatal Conductance of Agricultural Crops

» Response of Various Marine Animals to Ocean Warming

» Medieval Warm Period in Central Europe

» Growth Response of Grassland Species to Elevated C02 When Water Stressed

» Effects of Increased C02 on Herbaceous Plant Pests

» Medieval Warm Period in Northern Europe

» Loblolly Pines Defy the Progressive Nitrogen Hypothesis

» Response of Crustaceans to Ocean Warming

» Energy Inefficiencies of Biofuels

» Response of Marine Plants to Changes in Temperature

» Biofuels: The Carbon Debt They Owe

» Medieval Warm Period in Japan

» Response of Corals to Ocean Acidification

» Interactive Effects of C02 and Water Stress on the Growth of Woody Plant Species

» Biofuels: Land and Water Concerns

» Medieval Warm Period in Upper North America

***
Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Research Group

» Roger Pielke Sr. is now on Twitter!

» 2012 Climate Science Weblog in Review by Dallas Jean Staley – A Guest Post

» The Weblog Is Retiring

» Publication Of “Reply to “Comment On ‘Ocean Heat Content And Earth’s Radiation Imbalance. II. Relation To Climate Shifts’ ” by Nuccitelli Et Al. By Douglass and Knox 2012

» Q&A From A Group Of Retired NASA Personnel And Associates

» The Importance of Land Use/Land Practices On Climate – A Perspective From Jon Foley

» Interview With James Wynn In The English Department At Carnegie Mellon University

» University Of Alabama At Huntsville October 2012 Lower Tropospheric Temperature Analysis

» USA Election Day 2012

» New Paper “Climatic Variability Over Time Scales Spanning Nine Orders of Magnitude: Connecting Milankovitch Cycles With Hurst–Kolmogorov Dynamics” By Markonis And Koutsoyiannis

***


» The Kaufman Tautology

» Warmest since, uh, the Medieval Warm Period

» The Third Warmest Arctic Century

» Gavin Schmidt and the EPA Denial Decision

» Millennial Quebec Tree Rings

» Decomposing Paico

» New Article on Igaliku

» PAGES2K vs the Hanhijarvi Reconstruction

» PAGES2K: More Upside Down?

» Okshola: which way is up?

***
Watts Up With That?

» Quote of the Week – climate fears in context

» Violent Tornadoes Are On The Decline In The US

» Satellite captures massive smoke and haze over china

» The 2014/15 El Niño – Part 19 – Is an El Niño Already Taking Place?

» Warmth is Good; Cold is the Killer

» 2014 Antarctic Ozone Hole Holds Steady

» New Paper on Sea Level Rise – Purkey et al (2014) – Examines the Sea Level Rise by Basin

» New paper links warming since 1950 to ENSO and cloud cover variations

» The Weather Channel pushes back against John Coleman

» U.S. Military caves to endless global warming attack

» Magnetism and Weather: Interconnections?

» Hump Day Hilarity – warming at a snails pace

***
Global Warming News

» Decline in Violent Tornadoes: Blame Global Warming?

» Kemper CCS Project: 3 Years Behind, $3.9 Billion Over Budget. How’s that for ‘adequately demonstrated’?

» EPA’s Clean Power Plan Targets for Virginia: Unlawful Six Ways

» NRDC Left with Egg on Face as “Laughable” Lawsuit Proceeds against Proposed Clean Power Plan

» Which Is the Bigger Threat to People in Developing Countries: Climate Change or Energy Poverty?

» “Topsy-Turvy” Clean Power Plan Could “Substantially” Raise Electric Bills — Virginia State Corporate Commission

» EPA’s Clean Power Plan: Huge Electric Sector Impacts, Undetectably Small Climate Benefits — Study

» The Divestment Movement’s Heart of Darkness

» EPA’s Clean Power Plan: Strategy for One-Party Rule? (Updated 10-17-2014)

» Will eBay Stand with ALEC?

***
Fox News - Climate Change Stories

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Michelle Malkin - Enviro-Nitwits

» Fanboy of scare monger Al Gore accuses conservative of scare mongering about Ebola

» Of course: Guess what might be to blame for the first ever diagnosis of Ebola in US

» Inconvenient weightlessness: Latest scare tactic highlights gravity of ‘climate crisis’ desperation

» Obama fires up Air Force One, Marine One, huge motorcade to deliver climate change warning at UN

» Wow, Al Gore has lost so much weight that he makes a Prius look like a Chevy Suburban SUV

***
DailyTech Michael Asher`s blog

» Will the Real Antarctica Please Stand Up?

» Global Warming May Decrease Hurricanes, Research Suggests

» Japanese Report Disputes Human Cause for Global Warming

» Sea Ice Ends Year at Same Level as 1979

» A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the (Climate) Forum

» Climate Report Downgrades Ice Loss; Media Reports Opposite

» Princeton Physicist Calls Global Warming Science "Mistaken"

» Defying Predictions, Sea Level Rise Begins to Slow

» Electric Car Sales in Freefall; Industry Risks Collapse

» Glaciers in Norway Growing Again

***
C3 - Climate Cycles Change

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CATO - Global Warming

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CanadaFreePress - Global Warming

» IPCC to Emphasize New Marketing Campaign

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Headlines

»Watch Apollo Astronaut Walt Cunningham on TV: ‘Models are not data’ Calls AGW ‘one of the biggest scientific hoaxes in history’
»W Hudson Bay polar bear population no longer ‘declining’ – where are the headlines?
Environment Canada’s Polar Bear Technical Committee upgraded the status of Western Hudson Bay polar ...
»More Glacier Studies Confirm Roman And Medieval Warm Periods Were Just As Warm As Today
»New excuse #56 for the ‘pause’ in global warming: Satellites underestimate cooling from volcanic aerosols – Published in Geophysical Research Letters
»Lawsuit: White House Won’t Show Evidence To Back Up ‘Polar Vortex’ Claims
»WH science office sued over polar vortex video
»Actor Michael Caine refuses to reduce his carbon footprint: ‘I was so poor for so long…I figured the world owed me a debt’
»Climate Change Concerns Push Chile to Forefront of Carbon Tax Movement
»Heat is on the Weather Bureau after MP accuses it of wiping 118-year-old temperature records to justify claims of climate change
»Even Halloween is Bad for the Planet, say Environmentalists
Halloween candies are made using palm oil, the production of which Donlon describes as causing “defo ...


Date published: Fri, 31 Oct 2014 17:13:56 +0000
Details

»Do Satellite Temperature Trends Have a Spurious Cooling from Clouds?
The validity of the satellite record of global temperature is sometimes questioned; especially since ...
»Polar Vortex Charleston
A cold airmass plunging out of Canada and a coastal low developing off the Carolinas by Saturday is ...
»Sunspot 2192 Time Lapse Video
I missed Thursday’s solar eclipse due to clouds, but here’s a sunset time lapse video I ...
»Green Meme Friday
In commemoration of green hypocrisy.
»Our Initial Comments on the Abraham et al. Critique of the Spencer & Braswell 1D model
Our 1D forcing-feedback-mixing model published in January 2014 (and not paywalled, but also here) ad ...
»Solar Eclipse Today and the Largest Sunspot in 18 Years
Just a reminder of the partial solar eclipse today, Thursday October 23, which will provide eastern ...
»Why 2014 Won’t Be the Warmest Year on Record
Much is being made of the “global” surface thermometer data, which three-quarters the wa ...
»Ode to Misinterpretations of the Second Law
Inspired by a couple comments from my solar eclipse post. He said an object that was cold Could not ...
»Solar Thursday USA: An Eclipse AND a Massive Sunspot Group
Residents of the eastern U.S. will be in a particularly good location to see a partial solar eclipse ...
»Dr. Roy’s Earth Today #12: Central Siberian Plateau
Lying mostly north of the Arctic Circle, the Central Siberian Plateau is enjoying sunshine today, bu ...


Date published: Thu, 30 Oct 2014 15:36:56 +0000
Details

»Testing Blog Cross-Post 2
again
»Reconciling Conflicting Climate Claims
Cross-posted from Coyoteblog At Real Science, Steven Goddard claims this is the coolest summer on re ...
»Computer Models as “Evidence”
Cross-posted from Coyoteblog The BBC has decided not to every talk to climate skeptics again, in par ...
»Another Plea to Global Warming Alarmists on the Phrase “Climate Denier”
Cross-posted from Coyoteblog Stop calling me and other skeptics “climate deniers“.  No o ...
»My Thoughts on Steven Goddard and His Fabricated Temperature Data Claim
Cross-posted from Coyote Blog. Steven Goddard of the Real Science blog has a study that claims that ...
»The Thought Experiment That First Made Me A Climate Skeptic
Please check out my Forbes post today.  Here is how it begins: Last night, the accumulated years of ...
»Explaining the Flaw in Kevin Drum’s (and Apparently Science Magazine’s) Climate Chart
Cross-Posted from Coyoteblog I won’t repeat the analysis, you need to see it here.  Here is th ...
»If You Don’t Like People Saying That Climate Science is Absurd, Stop Publishing Absurd Un-Scientific Charts
Reprinted from Coyoteblog science a “myth”.  As is usual for global warming supporters, ...
»Update On My Climate Model (Spoiler: It’s Doing a Lot Better than the Pros)
Cross posted from Coyoteblog In this post, I want to discuss my just-for-fun model of global tempera ...
»Climate Goundhog Day
I posted something like this over at my other blog but I suppose I should post it here as well.  Fol ...


Date published: Tue, 16 Sep 2014 22:33:21 +0000
Details

»Leading Climate Scientist Defects: No Longer Believes in the ‘Consensus’
By James Delingpole - One of the world’s most eminent climate scientists – for several d ...
»Global Warming and Settled Science
By Andre Lofthus The AGW community would have you believe that the science in favor of AGW is settle ...
»The Tragedy of Earth Day
By Doug L. Hoffman - It is Earth Day today, a chance for all tree huggers, green activists and other ...
»Climate scientist’s emails are shielded from disclosure, Virginia Supreme Court says
By Debra Cassens Weiss - The Virginia Supreme Court has ruled that a climate scientist’s emails are ...
»Global Warming’s Upside-Down Narrative
By Bjorn Lomborg - When politicians around the world tell the story of global warming, they cast it ...


Date published: Thu, 08 May 2014 20:29:04 +0000
Details

»The Kaufman Tautology
The revised PAGES2K Arctic reconstruction used 56 proxies (down three from the original 59).  Althou ...
»Warmest since, uh, the Medieval Warm Period
The money quote in the PAGES2K abstract was that there wasn’t any worldwide Little Ice Age of ...
»The Third Warmest Arctic Century
PAGES2K (2013) unequivocally stated that the Arctic was “warmest during the 20th century ...
»Gavin Schmidt and the EPA Denial Decision
About eight weeks ago, Jean S postulated that Gavin Schmidt had been involved in writing the documen ...
»Millennial Quebec Tree Rings
In today’s post, I’m going to discuss an important new 1000-year chronology from norther ...
»Decomposing Paico
In today’s post, Jean S and I are going to show that the paico reconstruction, as implemented ...
»New Article on Igaliku
Shortly after the publication of PAGES2K, I pointed out that the Igaliku lake sediment proxy, had be ...
»PAGES2K vs the Hanhijarvi Reconstruction
The PAGES2K (2013) Arctic reconstruction of Kaufman et al has attracted considerable attention as a ...
»PAGES2K: More Upside Down?
Does it matter whether proxies are used upside-down or not? Maybe not in Mann-world (where, in respo ...
»Okshola: which way is up?
The recent revisions to PAGES2K included a dramatic flipping of the Hvitarvatn varve series to the o ...


Date published: Sat, 01 Nov 2014 03:46:37 +0000
Details

»Growth Rates of Old Versus Young Forest Trees
The planting and preservation of forests has long been acknowledged to be an effective and environme ...
»Water Use Efficiency of Agricultural Species
In some cases, the water-use efficiency increases caused by atmospheric CO2 enrichment are spectacul ...
»Tropical Trees
Going back in time to the final few years of the 20th century, Schaffer et al. (1997) grew two mango ...
»Global Temperatures and Biospheric Productivity
Among the many climate-alarmist fears of CO2-induced global warming is the concern that the producti ...
»Rewriting Sunspot History
In 2006, when I first made the mistake of writing publicly of my doubts about the Party Line on manm ...
»Analysis of the Second Order Draft of the Working I Contribution to IPCC 5AR
This new review is unlike the previous analysis because it focuses not only on a statistical analysi ...
»The Economics of Biofuels
Aside from rejecting biofuel expansion and use for environmental reasons (see Biofuels (Land and Wat ...
»The Warming-Induced Evolution of Terrestrial Plants
One of the grandest of catastrophes that climate alarmists contend will result from CO2-induced glob ...
»Medieval Warm Period in Southern Europe
Was there really a global Medieval Warm Period? The IPCC used to acknowledge there was; but they hav ...
»Effects of Elevated C02 on the Stomatal Conductance of Agricultural Crops
As the air's CO2 content continues to rise, nearly all plants will respond by reducing their leaf st ...


Date published: Sat, 01 Nov 2014 05:30:56 +0000
Details

»New peer reviewed paper finds that New Zealand warms at only 0.28°C per century compared to Govt NIWA trend of 0.91.
Good to see this new paper – A Reanalysis of Long-Term Surface Air Temperature Trends in New Z ...
»Australian Commonwealth MP George Christensen makes speech critical of Bureau of Meteorology adjusting temperature records
The speech is packed into 5 minutes and is on YouTube. The media has the story too – Nationals ...
»Australian fuel cell company attracted by the German Energiewende
The ABC reports that ASX listed fuel cell company Ceramic Fuel Cells Limited (ASX – CFU) with ...
»BBC reports UK Electricity National Grid only has 4% spare capacity this winter
It is hard to believe electricity consumers have voted in Governments that have weakened such a vita ...
»The Australian Commonwealth Govt muddles around vainly hoping Labor will assist it to reform the money wasting RET scheme
I have just quickly sketched my opinion of where the Govt of Prime Minister Tony Abbott finds itself ...
»Australian Commonwealth Government has lost their way – lost the plot
The Govt of Prime Minister Tony Abbott Govt is thirteen months into a three year term – winnin ...
»EU agrees on ludicrous 40% 2030 emissions reduction target
In the great tradition of countless IPCC climate conferences – at a time EU economies are in d ...
»Ottawa under attack by gunmen yet in Canberra the ACT Govt sponsors a drama production “Kill Climate Deniers” specifically portraying an armed siege of the Australian Parliament
As Ottawa is experiencing shootings – you have to pinch yourself that this idiotic arts grant ...
»BBC reporting the UN World Health Organisation is under fire for bungled response to Ebola crisis
Odd that I have not seen this in any Australian news – I see about three TV news channels each ...
»Proposed Bango Wind Farm near Boorowa NSW – an example of five years of multiple regulatory hurdles
The Bango Wind Farm proposal initiated in 2009 extends from north of Yass to SE of Boorowa and is a ...


Date published: Wed, 29 Oct 2014 23:09:56 +0000
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Ocean Sediment, It's A Gas by Dr. Doug L. Hoffman

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Author Post
Denny
Wed May 11 2011, 08:56AMQuote
Registered Member #140
Joined: Sun May 11 2008, 12:38PM
Posts: 2178




Methane is an important greenhouse gas, 30 times more potent than CO2, but our knowledge of the methane cycle is woefully inadequate. Sediments on the ocean's floor contain immense quantities of methane and there are enormous fluxes of methane into and out of these sediments. Trapped frozen in ice, there are some 10,000 gigatons of carbon stored under the sea—twice as much carbon as contained in conventional fossil fuel reserves. Some scientists consider the release of this methane the single worst environmental danger we face as a species. A massive release of ocean floor methane could cause real runaway global warming that would have dramatic impact on life. But methane continually leaks from seabeds around the world, contributing to the total amount of carbon injected into the ecosystem. A new report finds that ocean methane concentrations have been underestimated by a factor of 10 to 20 fold.

Estimates of sedimentary methane production vary between 85 and 300 Tg per year, but analytical difficulties have made previous measurements too imprecise to tell what the true amount is. Most previous estimates were calculated from ship board readings, not measurements taken at depth. According to a report in Geophysical Research Letters, Zhang et al., in order to avoid the sampling issues that have plagued other methods, employed an in situ technique to measure methane concentrations in sediments. Motivation for the research and general results are listed in the abstract:


Ocean sediment dissolved CH4 concentrations are of interest for possible climate-driven venting from sea floor hydrate decomposition, for supporting the large-scale microbial anaerobic oxidation of CH4 that holds the oceanic CH4 budget in balance, and for environmental issues of the oil and gas industry. Analyses of CH4 from recovered cores near vent locations typically show a maximum of ∼1 mM, close to the 1 atmosphere equilibrium value. We show from novel in situ measurement with a Raman-based probe that geochemically coherent profiles of dissolved CH4 occur rising to 30 mM (pCH4 = 3 MPa) or an excess pressure ∼3× greater than CO2 in a bottle of champagne. Normalization of the CH4 Raman ν1 peak to the ubiquitous water ν2 bending peak provides a fundamental internal calibration. Very large losses of CH4 and fractions of other gases (CO2, H2S) must typically occur from recovered cores at gas rich sites. The new data are consistent with observations of microbial biomass and observed CH4 oxidation rates at hydrate rich sites and support estimates of a greatly expanded near surface oceanic pore water CH4 reservoir.


In short, they found concentrations as much as 10 to 20 times higher than those determined by shipboard measurements and conclude that production rates are near the high end of past estimates. Researchers have known since the 1960s that there are large natural deposits of frozen ice containing methane lying on the ocean floor, where the high pressure and cold temperature keep them from melting. Oceanographers have pulled up frozen chunks of this material, called methane clathrate or hydrate, from more than 90 locations around the world.



Methane clathrate deep ocean deposit.

Clathrate hydrates are cage-like minerals in which water forms an ice-like cage structure in which gas molecules, such as methane, reside. Huge amounts of methane clathrate exist under the high pressures and cold temperatures of the seafloor, forming a major reservoir of greenhouse gas. Unsurprisingly, some energy companies are investigating ways to tap into this huge reservoir of trapped natural gas.

Other key findings include measurements giving a 30× increase in methane concentration and the conclusion that pore water methane is a massively underestimated carbon reservoir. Note that, when sediment particles get deposited on the seafloor they carry some ocean water with them. Water trapped in this way, scientists call “pore water” because it fills the pores between the sediment grains. Because this water is in contact with methane bearing clathrate ice, it also contains elevated levels of CH4.

In fact, there must be high levels of gas in the water saturating the mud that methane ice is buried in. Otherwise, according to Peter Brewer, ocean chemist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, the hydrate will not be stable. “If you just put a block of methane hydrate on the sea floor it will dissolve really fast,” says Brewer. “The hydrates in sediments have to be in equilibrium with the water around them, which must contain huge amounts of methane. One would guess it is about the same as the amount in the clathrate itself.”

This is why Brewer and his PhD student Xin Zhang, the papers lead author, equipped a remotely piloted submersible with a Raman-based probe to measure methane in place. Raman spectroscopy is well suited to chemical analysis on the ocean floor. The robotic sub can stick its metal probe into the mud next to a hydrate deposit and suck up water, and then a laser beam reveals the amount of methane and other substances in that water. Bottom line: there's a lot more methane down there than is apparent from cores brought to the surface.



A Raman spectroscopy laser on the sea floor.

So are the merchants of doom correct? Could a seafloor eruption of methane cause another episode of rapid warming like that of the PETM or even the more prolonged warming of the recently discovered Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum.? Brewer thinks that a mass releases of sea-floor methane is unlikely to cause a blip in today's climate. More likely would be for any released gas to get digested by bacteria or dissolved into sea water, instead of released to the atmosphere. “It's not a scare story,” says Brewer, in an article on Nature.com.

Other than having oceanographers all atwitter, what do these new findings mean? It means that we have discovered science has a long way to go before it can claim to truly understand the carbon cycle. Particularly the sort of mid term sequestration of carbon represented by methane clathrates, falling as it does between the short term cycle of vegetation growth and decomposition, and the long term cycle of geological sequestration. There is more carbon being cycled through Earth's environment than science knows about—10, 20, even 30 times more than previous estimates in this case. It comes from sources undetected and is consumed by processes unknown. But there is a larger lesson here.

What is important about the work done by Zhang et al. is that they devised better instruments and then actually went out and measured the gas they were studying. In other words they did real science—they didn't just muck about with computer models, or even haul samples back to the lab for measurement. They gathered data about methane ice from where it occurs: on the bottom of the ocean. Real experiment, real observations, real science. If only the twits making doomsday predictions based on their software playthings had as much scientific integrity. But then the whole global warming crisis would fizz away, like a clathrate hauled from its ocean larder.

Be safe, enjoy the interglacial and stay skeptical.


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